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Presentations

Plenary 2

  • JT Williams: Findings And Implications From A Coarse-Scale Global Assessment Of Recent Selected Mega-Fires

    In many parts of the world, the number of large wildfires has been increasing at an alarming rate. Among them, so-called “mega-fires” have emerged. These extraordinary conflagrations are unprecedented in the modern era for their deep and long-lasting social, economic, and environmental impacts. This paper examines eight mega-fires from around the globe. It attempts to discern patterns in the causal and contributory factors underlying the mega-fire phenomenon.

     

    The cumulative effects of global warming, the vulnerable condition of fire-prone landscapes, and population shifts into and out of wildland settings are changing the calculus of wildfire protection in many countries. As wildfire risks intensify, this paper suggests the importance of more balanced, more comprehensive wildfire protection approaches that better integrate fire-related considerations into natural resource management strategies at the landscape scale. In this respect, mega-fires have important implications for land managers and policy-makers. This paper’s findings provide a basis for more effectively aligning land management policies, plans, and practices across fire-prone landscapes.



Plenary 3

Plenary 4

  • Jeremy Russell-Smith: The potential for customary fire management to transform the social and biodiversity landscape of northern Australia

    An average of ~20% of Australia’s 1.9M km2 tropical savannas is currently burnt each

    year, mostly in the late dry season under relatively severe fire-weather conditions. While

    much of northern Australia is nominally pastoral land, for the most part late dry season

    wildfires occur in remote, biodiversity-rich, and typically rugged landscapes derived from

    infertile substrates with little economic pastoral potential. Outside urban centres, tenure

    parcels are typically very substantial (>>100,000 ha), and associated infrastructure is

    limited. Most of the non-urban population is indigenous (i.e. Aboriginal). Much fire

    affected land is held by indigenous people, either as sole title owners or, more commonly,

    under joint title arrangements with non-indigenous institutional (e.g. conservation estate)

    or pastoral title holders. Typically, indigenous land owners derive few economic benefits

    from their extensive land holdings, other than from a few relatively concentrated mining

    ventures.

     

     

    However, over the past fifteen years or so, there has been growing development of, and

    government support for, culturally appropriate indigenous land and associated fire

    management activities. Such activities have focused mostly on biodiversity conservation

    management, either as joint management agreements with National Park institutions, or

    more recently and substantially, under Indigenous Protected Area arrangements with the

    Australian Government on indigenously owned lands. In parallel, as a means for deriving

    economic returns to indigenous landscape fire managers through commercial offset

    arrangements with large corporate polluters, there has been ongoing development of

    indigenous programs focusing on reducing greenhouse gas emissions from late dry

    season wildfires through reinstatement of customary, strategically focused fire regimes.

    Operating successfully since 2005, the 28,000 km2 Western Arnhem Land Fire Abatement

    (WALFA) project provides the first commercial-scale example of such a voluntary savanna

    burning offset project internationally. A number of other large regional-scale savanna

    burning projects are now under development across fire-prone northern Australia. Formal

    recognition of offset credits derived from savanna burning projects is due to be legislated

    for in Australia in mid-2011. These (and associated cultural, biodiversity and

    biosequestration) benefits derived from savanna burning projects have the potential to

    transform indigenous rural economies and help address social disadvantage. Such programs could potentially be applied to other international fire-prone savanna landscape settings.



Plenary 5

  • Bruce Brockett: Fire history and management in Pilanesberg National Park over a 30-year period: 1980-2010

    This study investigates the fire regime over 30 years (1980-2010) in Pilanesberg National Park (semi-arid savanna, mean annual rainfall 630mm, proclaimed 1979, 50,000 ha in size). Fire regime characteristics over 30 years were contrasted between four periods: 1980-1981, 1982-1988, 1989-1999, and 2000-2010. Prescribed burning commenced in 1982. From 1980-97 the average extent burnt was 34.6%, with prescribed burns dominating. However from 1998-2010 their extent decreased, with arson fires increased to 66%. In 1990, 1998, 2001, and 2003 >90% of the area was burnt by unplanned fires (prescribed burning <5%). Between 1999-2010 > 65 % of the area was burnt in the late dry season. Hence the current fire regime is dominated by high fire severity fires. This will have important implications for biodiversity conservation. Ad-hoc changes to fire policy have been implemented by successive Park Managers based on personal/group experience. It is recommended that systematic annual fire management reviews be conducted, to facilitate a process of organizational or instructional learning to take place.



Parallel Session 1

  • Mike Flannigan: Global wildland fire - how do we adapt to climate change

     

    Flannigan, M.D.1, Bowman, L.M.2, de Groot, W.J.3, Krawchuk, M.A.4, Wotton, B.M.5
     
    Wildland fire is a global feature resulting from interactions between climate/weather, fuels and people. Our climate and associated day-to-day weather is changing rapidly due to human activities that may have dramatic and unexpected impacts on global fire activity. This presentation reviews the current understanding of what the future may bring with respect to wildland fire and presents future options for research and management. Existing studies suggest a general increase in area burned and fire occurrence but there is a lot of spatial variability, with some areas of no change or even decreases in area burned and occurrence. Fire seasons are lengthening for temperate and boreal regions and this trend should continue in a warmer world. Future trends of fire severity and intensity are difficult to determine due to the complex and non-linear interactions between weather, vegetation and people. Improved fire data are required along with continued global studies that dynamically include weather, vegetation, people, and other disturbances. Global Early Warning Systems that accurate predict the spatial and temporal variability in fire activity can help us adapt to a warmer world. Lastly, we need more research on the role of policy, practices and human behaviour on fire activity as most of the global fire activity is directly attributable to people.
     
     
    1 Natural Resources Canada, Canada & University of Alberta; mike.flannigan@nrcan.gc.ca
    2 Natural Resources Canada, Canada; lynn.bowman@nrcan.gc.ca
    3 Natural Resources Canada, Canada; bill.degroot@nrcan.gc.ca
    4 University of California, Berkeley, USA; megk@berkeley.edu
    5 Natural Resources Canada & University of Toronto, Canada; mike.wotton@utoronto.ca


  • Guido van der Werf: Fires in the global carbon cycle

     

    Guido van der Werf1
     
    Advancements in satellite retrievals of active fire detections and burned area have enabled estimating the impact of fires on the global land surface. Here I show how this information can be combined with biogeochemical modeling to assess the influence of fires on the global carbon cycle. These results are distributed as the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) and widely used in the atmospheric and Earth system science communities. I will show which countries and regions are the largest contributors to the global emissions via fire, estimated to be 2.0±0.4 Pg C year-1 over the 1997-2009 period (compared to 8.4±0.4 Pg C year-1 from fossil fuel emissions). I will make a distinction between ―net‖ CO2 emissions, for example from deforestation and peatland fires, and CO2 emissions from fires that may be balanced by regrowth, for example savanna and forest fires. In addition, I will show what the potential carbon sequestration rates due to large-scale fire exclusion can be and how fires impact the concentrations of global CO2 and CH4 concentrations.
     
     
    1 Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, guido.van.der.werf@falw.vu.nl


  • Johann Georg Goldammer: Wildland Fires and Human Security: Challenges for Fire Management in the 21st Century

     

    Wildland Fires and Human Security: Challenges for Fire Management in the 21st Century
    Johann Georg Goldammer 1
     
    Changes of fire regimes and an increasing vulnerability of humans to direct and secondary consequences of wildland fire are observed in many regions globally. Both increasing and decreasing intensity of land use are associated with set fires and often uncontrollable wildfire episodes. This was revealed by the fire emergencies in Bolivia and Russia in July-August 2010. Wildfires burning at the interface between wildlands, the fringes of suburbs, metropolitan agglomerations and rural settlements are increasingly impacting large populations, notably by extreme air pollution affecting human health and mortality. Other critical issues include wildfires burning on terrain contaminated by various types of hazardous chemicals (e.g. by mercury) and radioactivity. Remnants of military activities and armed conflicts, e.g. unexploded ordnance (UXO), depleted uranium ammunition and landmines are posing additional threats. Wildfires occurring in such contaminated terrain are resulting in secondary damages, such as chemical and radioactive air pollution and explosion of UXO and landmines on active or abandoned mined areas. Fires occurring during armed conflicts and causing collateral damages and fire purposely set as means of conflicts have been noted increasingly over the past decade. The Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC) has launched an initiative in 2008 to address challenges of fire management on contaminated terrain. This endeavour is supported by the Council of Europe and the Environment and Security Initiative (ENVSEC), an activity of UNDP, NATO, UNEP, OSCE and UNECE. Since 2008 the GFMC is publishing annual Global Wildland Fatalities reports.
     
    Keywords: Wildfire, wildland fire, human security, radioactive contamination, chemical contamination, unexploded ordnance, land mines
     
    1 Global Fire Monitoring Center, Secretariat of UNISDR Global Wildland Fire Network / Wildland Fire Advisory Group, Georges-Koehler-Allee 75, D-79110 Freiburg, Germany – info@gfmc.org


  • Luis Galiana-Mart: Landscape changes and wildfire behaviour: new fire scenarios in Spain

     

    Luis Galiana- Martín 1 & Cristina Montiel-Molina2
     
    Recent trends in landscape change, according with new models of economic development and new lifestyles, have determined new territorial scenarios for wildfire ignition and propagation. The main drivers of the landscape change with implications in wildfire behaviour have been the following: (i) agricultural and forest land management abandonment and the underlying socio-economic processes; (ii) shifts in forest-related policies with consequences in structural causes of wildfires; (iii) proliferation of linear infrastructures, urban sprawls and expansion of the wildland-urban interfaces.
     
    These changes in the landscape have influenced the occurrence and propagation of wildfires. This paper analyses the landscape changes related to the wildfire behaviour that have happened in Spain through the last twenty years and predicts future change trends. To do that, the main variables considered are: land use/land cover, fuel load attributes and recent fire history. The final objective is to identify and characterise the new fire scenarios, pursuing the aim of making easier the adaptation and improving the efficiency of the wildfire defence units, as well as reducing territorial vulnerability to forest wildfires.
     
     
    1 Autonomous University of Madrid, Department of Geography. Faculty of Philosophy. C/ Francisco Tomás y Valiente, 1. 28049 Madrid, Spain. E-mail: luis.galiana@uam.es
    2 Complutensian University of Madrid, Department of Regional Geography and Physical Geography, Faculty of Geography and History, Ciudad Universitaria, s/n. 28040 Madrid, Spain. E-mail: crismont@ghis.ucm.es


Parallel Session 2A

  • Ana Sebasti: EU-FIRESMART: Forest and land management options to prevent unwanted forest fires

     

    EU-FIRESMART: Forest and land management options to prevent unwanted forest fires1
     
    Ana Sebastián-López2, Carmen Hernando Lara3, Rosa Planelles4, Armando Buffoni5, Caroline Bostrom6, Rosario Alves7, Marielle Jappiot8, Jesús San Miguel Ayanz9
     
    Fire incidence upon southern European forests is expected to worsen as a result of climate change; furthermore, fire prevention methods, priorities, practices and legal frames vary considerably across Europe. Hence the need to reinforce one of the main corner stones of fire fighting, i.e.: fire prevention. However, the baseline knowledge concerning forest fire preventive practices is atomized and not universally accessible to the wide stakeholder community, not even along the silvicultural chain.
     
    This paper presents early results of the EU Support Action EU-FireSmart whose objectives are: (i) to identify the obstacles that hinder the effectiveness of forest fire preventive measures and (ii) to derive recommendations to integrate prevention practices in regular forest management plans. The analysis tackles both the European and the local panorama, by means of test sites in Portugal, Spain, France and Italy. A scientific and technological data base (1400 entries) of forest fire prevention methods or practices has been gathered and analysed to ascertain the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the said preventive experiences within eight defined topics (agroforestry and grazing as preventive measures, awareness rising, prevention in the wild land urban interface, etc). The analysis of the DB is yielding practical recommendations to turn current negative factors into pro-active forest fire prevention measures.
     
     
    1 FIRESMART is a EU FP7-ENV-2009-1 Support Action. Grant Agreement Nº 243849.
    2 GMV Aerospace and Defence S.A. Isaac Newton, 11. P.T.M. Tres Cantos. E-28760 Madrid. Spain. asebastian@gmv.es
    3 Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA). Grupo de Incendios Forestales. CIFOR-INIA. Carretera de la Coruña km 7,5. E-28040 Madrid. Spain. lara@inia.es
    4 Entrenamiento e Información Forestal (EIMFOR) , C/Berlín, 4. Portal 3, oficina 3, bajo. E-28224 Pozuelo de Alarcón (Madrid). Spain. rosapla@eimfor.com
    5 AMBIENTEITALIA S.R.L. Via Carlo Poerio 39 – I-20129 Milano. Italy. armando.buffoni@ambienteitalia.it
    6 Confédération Européenne des Propriétaires Forestiers CEPF. European Forestry House. Rue du Luxembourg 66, B-1000 Bruxelles. Belgium. caroline.bostrom@cepf-eu.org
    7 Associação Florestal de Portugal - FORESTIS. Rua de Santa Catarina, n.º 753. PT-4000 - 454 Porto. Portugal. p185081f@forestis.pt
    8 Centre National du Machinisme Agricole du Génie Rural des Eaux et des Forêts (Cemagref). Le Tholonet, 13612 Aix en Provence, France. marielle.jappiot@cemagref.fr
    9 EC- DG. Joint Research Centre. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Land Management & Natural Hazards Unit - FOREST (TP 261). Via Fermi s/n, Ispra (Va), I-21027, Italy. jesus.san-miguel@jrc.it


  • Ewan Waller: Black Saturday is Leading to Significant Changes in Land & Fuel Management Across Southern Australia

     

    Ewan Waller1
     
    The 2009 Black Saturday bushfires claimed 173 lives and became the worst civil disaster in Australia‘s history. Fuelled by a record heatwave, fires erupted on an unprecedented scale and ferocity.
    Black Saturday also significantly changed land and fuel management across Australia. The national emphasis is shifting to fire prevention based on proper land management – particularly forest fuel management. This was led by the Black Saturday Royal Commission, and is reinforced in a new National Fire Management Policy for Forests and Rangelands that stipulates:
    •  fire management must be at the landscape scale;
    •  a need for high quality, sustained research;
    •  the importance of adaptive management, with research readily integrated into management practice;
    •  land management led by the use of the right fire regimes; and success built on community engagement, leading to full public involvement.
     
    1 Chief Fire Officer, Dept of Sustainability and Environment, Victoria, Australia


  • Tom C. Harbour: A National Cohesive Wildland Fire Management Strategy

     

    Tom C. Harbour1 and Kirk M. Rowdabaugh2
     
    Addressing wildfire in the United States is not simply a fire management, fire operations or wildland-urban interface problem. It is a more complex land management and societal issue. Recently, fire officials from across the nation came together creating a national cohesive strategy that commits to a shared vision for present and future wildland fire and land management activities. Primary factors identified that present both the greatest challenges and greatest opportunities for making a positive difference in addressing America‘s wildland fire problems include restoring and maintaining resilient landscapes, creating fire-adapted communities and responding to wildfire. Building upon the foundation of previous efforts to establish direction for wildland fire management across America, the key to this strategy‘s success is its inclusiveness, regardless of land ownership.
     
    The past two decades have seen a rapid escalation of severe fire behavior, home and property losses, higher costs, increased threats to communities and worsening land conditions. Trends call for a broad-based, cohesive response to address the mounting challenges. This national strategy allows stakeholders to systematically and thoroughly develop a dynamic approach to planning for, responding to, and recovering from wildland fire in America.
     
     
    1 Director, Fire and Aviation Management, USDA Forest Service, United States of America
    2 Director, Office of Wildland Fire Coordination, USDOI, United States of America


  • Carlos Ackerknecht: Study on Occupational Accidents and Age in Chilean Forest Firefighters

     

     
    Carlos Ackerknecht 1 and Sergio Mendoza 2
     
    Due to the global aging process in the workforce, the Committee on Forest Fire Management (CFFM) and the Chilean Safety Association (ACHS) conducted a preliminary study on occupational health and safety associated to the age of injured forest firefighters between 1999 and 2010. Two groups with an annual average of 1,751 and 242 forest fire workers where followed during that period.
     
    Results showed that Accident Rate is lowering, but Risk Rate and Average Lost Time per Accident are both going up consistently. From the age point of view, younger workers (18-25 years old) are more prone to accidents (while formers studies showed that over 40 years old firefighters increased their contribution on total injuries). In spite of the size of the samples and other evidences, it is necessary to perform further researches to be more conclusive on workforce aging in forest firefighting and their relation with occupational accidents in Chile.
     
     
    1 Director, Forestry and Wood Industries Safety Program, Chilean Safety Association, Ramón Carnicer 163, Santiago, Chile; gprcai@achs.cl
    2 Head of Planning and Management Control, Fire Management Division, National Forestry Corporation, Paseo Bulnes 285, Office 201, Santiago, Chile; sergio.mendoza@conaf.cl


Parallel Session 2B

  • Francisco C. Rego: EU Project Fire Paradox: Moving Towards Integrated Fire Management

     

     
    Francisco C. Rego1, Eric Rigolot2, Daniel Alexandrian3, Paulo Fernandes4
     
    Fire Paradox was an integrated project (2006-2010) founded by the European Commission, including 30 partners from eleven European countries and six from Africa, South-America and Asia. Its approach was based on the paradox that fire can be both a - bad master and a good servant‖. This required to consider the negative impacts of wildland fire regimes (understanding fire initiation and propagation), the benefits of using fire as a tool for managing vegetation and treating hazardous fuels (prescribed burning and some traditional fire practices) and combating wildfires by using suppression fire techniques all of which being cornerstones of integrated fire management. The philosophy of the project is presented as well as an overview of its main findings, outcomes and initiatives.
     
    1 Centre of Applied Ecology - Prof. Beata Neves, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
    2 National Institute for Agricultural Research, Avignon, France
    3 Agence MTDA, Aix-en-Provence, France
    4 CITAB, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal


  • Michael Bruce: Land-use and carbon management; can new fire prescriptions, education and training minimise conflict for the management of heather shrubs in the United Kindom

     

    Land-use and carbon management; can new fire prescriptions, education and training minimise conflict for the management of heather shrubs in the United Kindom.1
     
    Michael Bruce2
     
    Important carbon stores in the United Kingdom are found in peat soils underneath areas of heather and grass moorland. Traditional land-uses in these areas have been grazing by livestock and use as hunting areas. Fire is used to regenerate heather (calluna vulgaris) and grasses and to create habitat mosaics to support the valuable hunting bird the grouse (Lagopus lagopus).
     
    International agreements on carbon management are gradually being brought into national laws and strategies. However carbon pathways are complex and there is insufficient research to directly support simplistic application of the carbon strategies in all cases. Can land managers and prescribed fire operatives still develop techniques that minimise the impact on carbon budgets?
    The application of prescribed fire principles and processes, coupled with fire danger rating systems, good practise guides and competency based training systems can give much support to land managers to incorporate appropriate carbon management strategies.
     
     
    1 Heather (calluna vulgaris)
    2 Firebreak Services Ltd, Glen Tanar Estate, Aboyne, Aberdeenshire, AB34 5EU, United Kingdom. Email michael@glentanar.co.uk


  • Raphaele Blanchi: Assessing vulnerability at the urban interface

     

     
    Raphaele Blanchi, Justin Leonard, Robert Leicester, Felix Lipkin, Fanny Boulaire & Cheryl McNamara1
     
    House loss during unplanned bushfires is a complex phenomenon where design, configuration, material and siting, can significantly influence the loss.
     
    In collaboration with the Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre the CSIRO has developed a tool to assess the vulnerability of a specific house at the urban interface.
     
    The tool is based on a spatial profiling of urban assets including their design, material, surrounding objects and their relationship amongst one another. The analysis incorporates both probabilistic and deterministic parameters, and is based on the impact of radiant heat, flame and embers on the surrounding elements and the structure itself. It provides a breakdown of the attributes and design parameters that contribute to the vulnerability level.
     
    This paper describes the tool which allows the user to explore the vulnerability of a house to varying levels of bushfire attacks. The tool is aimed at government agencies interested in building design, town planning and community education for bushfire risk mitigation.
     
     
    1 CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences - PO Box 56, Highett. Vic. 3190, Australia.
    Raphaele.blanchi@csiro.au


  • Luis Galiana Mart: The wildland-urban interface: a risk prone area in Spain

     

     
    Luis Galiana Martín 1
     
    One of the elements which is contributing the most to increased vulnerability of territories to wildland fires in Spain is the development of situations which could have an impact on buildings and urban areas. This spreading of the threat to goods and people prompts, aside from a risk increase, a rising complexity of prevention, and above all extinction duties.
     
    The spreading of interface situations is mainly related to urbanisation processes and the spatial patterns adopted in those processes. The intense growth of urban areas can be considered a general trend nationwide but it has been particularly intense in certain zones (metropolitan areas and, in general, urban agglomerations and coastal zones) and regarding particular residential configurations (low density housing development).
     
    The other element which contributes to the spreading of interfaces is the progression of natural vegetation against farmlands. In general, wildland has stabilised or slightly increased in Spain. Which seems to be more indisputable is the advance of wildland densification. These are qualitative changes of particular significance which also affect the increase of continuity of forest uses in especially sensitive areas like town farmlands or city outskirts and coastal areas.
     
    1 Autonomous University of Madrid, Department of Geography. Campus de Cantoblanco. Madrid 28049 (Spain). luis.galiana@uam.es.


  • : A methodology for the assessment of infrastructure vulnerability to forest fires in wildland urban interfaces

     

     
    Enrico Marchi1, Niccolo Brachetti Montorselli2, Laura Bonora3, Enrico Tesi4
     
    The aim of this study was to develop a model for the evaluation of infrastructures vulnerability to forest fires in the Wildland Urban Interface.
     
    The model was developed using GIS and it is able:
    to show the different grades of vulnerability of the infrastructures using dedicated maps;
    to analyse which factors contribute the most to reach a specific level of vulnerability.
    The factors introduced in the model are: types of vegetation, historical number of fires, slope and operational difficulties for suppression.
     
    A Multi-Criteria Analysis technique (Analytic Hierarchy Process - AHP) was used to compare the data and fuzzy logic functions were adopted to reduce errors. The AHP was based on interviews to experts (operative room managers, firebosses, researchers).
     
    The final product was a map with pixel classified in five risk levels that may be useful by decision makers in planning prevention action and in establish the priorities.
     
    1 DEISTAF – University of Florence (Italy) – enrico.marchi@unifi.it
    2 DEISTAF – University of Florence (Italy) – montorselli@unifi.it
    3 IBIMET-CNR (Italy) - l.bonora@ibimet.cnr.it
    4 Settore programmazione forestale – Tuscany Region (Italy)– enrico.tesi@regione.toscana.it


Parallel Session 2C

  • Al Beaver: Wildland/Urban Intermix

     

     
    Al Beaver1
     
    A process is examined that systematically examines the chain of events that culminate in a wildfire disaster. When examined closely and objectively disasters are the result of a combination of a complex set of interacting factors that come together in time and space.
     
    These factors do not materialize instantaneously. They develop over time and space to produce a risk profile that is a product of social/cultural factors in addition to the physical environment. By examining how the factors leading to historic wildland/urban intermix disasters have evolved as an interacting complex system, preemptive insight can be applied to wildfire disaster avoidance and wildland – urban intermix risk management.
    Wildland/urban intermix risk management applies the International Organization for Standardization, ISO 31000:2009 Risk management – Principles and guidelines.
     
    1 Manager of Strategic Planning and Risk, Department of Sustainability and Environment, Level 3, 8 Nicholson Street, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 3002, allen.beaver@dse.vic.gov.au.


  • Neil Burrows: Translating fire science into fire management to protect communities and conservation values

     

     
    Neil Burrows1
     
    South-west Australia is a region of remarkable biological diversity, predominantly shaped by diversity of climate and geomorphology. Fire has also played an important role in shaping biodiversity over at least 2.5 million years and anthropogenic fire has been a part of this environment for tens of thousands of years. Forest ecosystems are fire-maintained, having evolved traits that enable them to persist with, and depend upon a variety of fire regimes. No single regime is optimal for all organisms and communities, but diverse regimes, within ecological limits, are essential for maintaining biodiversity. Bushfires can also threaten people, property and industry so fire management, including proactive use of fire, is necessary to both conserve biodiversity and to reduce the negative impacts of bushfires. There exists a substantial body of fire ecology literature for these ecosystems. If on-ground fire management is to advance commensurate with advances in fire science, then this often complex plethora of information needs to be synthesized, simplified and presented as practical fire management paradigms, policies and prescriptions. This paper attempts to achieve this by describing a range of evidence-based practical fire regimes that can be implemented to conserve biodiversity and to protect human life and property in south-west Australia.
     
     
    1 Science Division, Department of Environment and Conservation Western Australia


  • Thomas W. Esgate: Collaborative Approach to Wildfire Mitigation

     

     
    Thomas W. Esgate1
     
    Lassen County Fire Safe Council (LCFSC) faces the challenges of wildfire impacts on communities in unique ways. They are developing treatment mitigation plans and implementing projects on a landscape level while integrating ecological and community social values.
     
    Under extreme conditions fires can spot ½ mile or more, leaving only a charred landscape on either side of a fuel break where thinned vegetation survives. This is what has led LCFSC to treat entire communities on a landscape scale where residents can retain their homes and forests after a wildfire.
     
    Working on a landscape scale has connected the council with other watershed and resource groups, which has led them to partner on ecosystem restoration projects on an even broader scale beyond the immediate confines of the local community. These collaborative projects not only reduce wildfire risk, but they are also restoring thousands of acres of imperiled watersheds and critical wildlife habitat.
     
     
    1 Managing Director; Lassen County Fire Safe Council, Inc. (LCFSC), P.O. Box 816, Susanville, California 96130, USA. Email twesgate@sbcglobal.net. Mr. Esgate has made fuel treatment presentations at the Sydney, Australia 2009 International Wildfire Management Conference and the 2008 Firewise Backyards and Beyond Conference.


Parallel Session 3A

  • David Duodu-Asare: The contribution of International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) to poverty alleviation in rural communities in Ghana through fire management: An evaluation of some selected ITTO funded projects

     

    The contribution of International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) to poverty alleviation in rural communities in Ghana through fire management: An evaluation of some selected ITTO funded projects 1
     
    David Duodu-Asare2 and Edward Obiaw 3
     
    This submission gives a critical analysis and evaluation of the contribution of the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) towards the reduction of poverty in rural communities in Ghana through the implementation of some of its funded projects. It seeks to put some of these projects (especially, those on fire management) under the socioeconomic development lens and evaluate how they have impacted on the economic lives of forest fringe communities. A discussion has been done of the successful and unsuccessful outputs, sustainability of these projects, and the contribution of the projects towards ITTO´s objectives and to draw lessons that can be used to improve similar projects in the future. It is concluded that the fire management projects supported by ITTO have contributed to a better understanding of the underlying reasons of fire use and causes of wildfires in the West African environment and how to address fire management at the grass root level.
    Keywords: International Tropical Timber Organization, projects, evaluation, poverty, sustainability, fire management.
     
     
    1 ―An abbreviated version of this paper was presented at the 5th International Wildland Fire Conference, 9-13th May, 2011 in Sun City, South Africa.
    2 Worked as Community Liaison Officer at the Wildfire Management Project Secretariat, Resource Management Support Centre (Forestry Commission of Ghana) P.O Box KS 1457, Kumasi-Ghana
    email: davrexto@yahoo.com
    3 Director, Resource Management Support Centre (Forestry Commission of Ghana) P.O Box KS 1457, Kumasi-Ghana email: konamventures@yahoo.com


  • Dante Arturo Rodr: Integrating Fire Management: Contrasting Cases of Central and Southern Mexico

    3.2 Integrating Fire Management: Contrasting Cases of Central and Southern Mexico

    Dante Arturo Rodríguez-Trejo1, Faustino Hernández-Santiago2, Juana Eliud Juárez-Bravo3, Héctor Ortiz-Contla4, Manuel Román Chavarría-Sánchez5, Pedro Arturo Martínez-Hernández6, Jesús Pérez-Moreno7, Antonio Vázquez-Alarcón8

    The traditonal use of fire in Central Mexico, on pine and oak fire-maintained-forests, is oriented to obtain grass resproutings for herds. 45% of forest fires are due to agriculture and cattle rising. These forests provide invaluable environmental services for Mexico City inhabitants. In rural areas like one of Oaxaca, Southern Mexico, shifting cultivation is practiced in oak-pine forests, in some cases involving an empirical community land ordination that makes sustainable this agroforestry system, while in others is degrading the environment. From 2000 to present, the Chapingo University has conducted a fire ecology and integrated fire management research program to yield ecological and social information to promote and to integrate the ecological plus the community fire managements with traditional prevention and firefighting, to conciliate the ecological role of fire in this ecosystems with the communities‘ use of fire and fire prevention and control. This work shows the advances of the project.

     

    1 División de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, México. dantearturo@yahoo.com
    2 Maestría en Agroforestería, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, México
    3 División de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, México
    4 División de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, México
    5 División de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, México
    6 Colegio de Posgraduados
    7 Colegio de Posgraduados
    8 Maestría en Agroforestería, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, México



  • Nceba Ngcobo: Natural Resource Management: The Working on Fire Programme

    Natural Resource Management: The Working on Fire Programme

    Nceba Ngcobo1

    Every year, wildfires cost the South African economy millions of Rand and cause loss of life and livelihoods. They devastate not only the forestry and farming sectors, but also those least able to afford such losses - the rural poor. The Working on Fire Programme was introduced in 2003 as a multidisciplinary government and private sector response, providing support to the National Disaster Management Unit. The aim is to train previously unemployed people as fire-fighters and to employ them to patrol fire-prone areas. Working on Fire aims to enhance the sustainability and protection of life, livelihoods, ecosystem services and natural processes through integrated fire management in order to contribute to:
    - economic empowerment
    - skills development
    - social equity
    - accelerated service delivery.
    Working on Fire deploys well-equipped and trained personnel to work alongside existing fire-fighting services to help prevent wildfire catastrophes. The programme also contributes resources and services to land management agencies and Fire Protection Associations.

     

    1 Department of Water Affairs, South Africa



  • Pieter van Lierop: Five years since Sevilla! Progress and challenges of integrated and community based fire management.

    Five years since Sevilla! Progress and challenges of integrated and community based fire management.

    Pieter van Lierop1

    At the last International Wildland Fire Conference in Sevilla 2011, FAO launched the Fire Management Voluntary Guidelines which are based on overarching approaches; participation and integrated fire management. The Fire Management Actions Alliance (FMAA) was also launched to support implementation of the Guidelines. The paper synthesizes progress made since then by FAO, the FMAA and others, as well as the challenges at present regarding the implementation of these approaches.
    The paper will analyse existing opportunities, including the REDD+ Partnership, the need to discuss fire in the context of climate change and to include fire management in the broader landscape policy and management framework. Regarding the community based approach the paper will highlight the need for more attention to traditional indigenous fire practices and knowledge. Finally the paper will present research needs regarding both approaches.

     

    1 FAO, Italy



Parallel Session 3B

  • John Leigh: ITTO\\\\\\\'s integrated forest fire management approach in the Tropics

    ITTO’s integrated forest fire management approach in the Tropics

    John Leigh 1

    Although normally highly resistant to fire, significant areas of tropical moist forests have gone up in flames in recent years. Fire in tropical forests is such a complex issue that attempts to deal with it in a haphazard way are likely to fail. The concept of integrated forest fire management (IFFM) has been developed to encourage a systematic approach to forest fire. It is not limited to the traditional efforts of fire prevention and fire suppression, also embracing community involvement, law enforcement and the use of prescribed fire as a tool. IFFM underpins the ITTO Guidelines on Fire Management in Tropical Forests, published in 1997. ITTO offers tropical countries access to professional assistance in planning an IFFM approach and developing project proposals for possible funding by the international community. To date, assistance has been provided to the Philippines, Colombia, Peru, Guyana, Nepal and Togo. Through its project program, ITTO is working with several governments and communities to build capacity for managing fire and to implement the fire guidelines – such as in Ghana, where a project being implemented by IUCN in collaboration with the Forest Research Institute of Ghana and the Ghana Forestry Commission is promoting efficient community-based fire management as part of a broader approach to forest restoration and sustainable management in fire-prone areas.

     

    1 Conservation Officer, Reforestation and Forest Management Division, International Tropical Timber Organization, 1-1-1, Minato-mirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama 220-0012, Japan - Leigh@itto.or.jp



  • Dominic Blay: Community fire management, livelihoods and restoration of fire-degraded areas: The case of three forest districts in Ghana

    Community fire management, livelihoods and restoration of fire-degraded areas: The case of three forest districts in Ghana

    Dominic Blay, Lawrence Damnyag, Francis Dwomoh and Luke Anglaare

    This paper discusses the results of activities implemented in a project on Fire-Management and Post-Fire Restoration with collaboration of local communities including identifying the causes and frequencies of fire over the past ten years; comparing the resources that were available some ten years back to those currently available and assessing if their values have been affected by fire and, the rate of resource depletion; as well as describing falling incomes and decreasing livelihood options. The paper discusses the retrogressive transformation of the landscape and the strategies developed to prevent fires and suppress fires and success, failures, and lessons learned. The paper concludes with a discussion of adaptation of local communities to changing resources and new opportunities and finally, mechanisms used to restore the degraded areas, including the appropriate species for fire-degraded areas based on survival and growth rate of the species planted.
    Key Words: Adaptation, Chromolaena odorata, rehabilitation, landscapes

     

    1 Forestry Institute of Ghana ,Kumasi,Ghana



  • Bambang Hero Saharjo: The Contribution of International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) to Develop a Fire Management Strategy and Its Implementation for Indonesian: A review

    The Contribution of International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) to Develop a Fire Management Strategy and Its Implementation for Indonesian: A review

    Bambang Hero Saharjo1, Johann Goldammer2

    During 1982/1983 about 3.6 million ha of forest and land of Indonesia burnt which cause smoke and others environmental and also social problems, unfortunately those fires continues until 1994. Because of those fires and smoke pollution in Indonesia especially during 1982 and 1994 a cooperation agreement was made to develop a project "Integrated Forest fire Management in Indonesia Phase I: National Guidelines on the Protection of Forests against Fires". The cooperation agreement was established between the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC), the Directorate General of Forest protection and Nature Conservation, Ministry of Forestry, and the Faculty of Forestry, Bogor University of Agricultural Sciences, that was signed on 21 October 1996. Indonesia was the first country which received assistance by ITTO and other donors to develop national guidelines. Indonesian Guidelines on The Protection of Forest Against Fire was launched on 31 March 1999 and followed by training for forest fire management trainers. 10 years after the ITTO Guidelines on the Protection of Forests against Fires unfortunately the fires situation in Indonesia is still out of control due to many reasons.
    Key words: ITTO, National Guidelines, Indonesian fires, IPB, Smoke

     

    1 Forest Fire Laboratory, Division of Forest Protection, Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16001, West Java, Indonesia. Tlp. (62251)8626806, Fax. (62251)8626886, e-mail: bhsaharjo@gmail.com
    2 The Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC), Fire Ecology Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, c/o Freiburg University / United Nations University (UNU), Georges-Koehler-Allee 75, D - 79110 Freiburg, GERMANY, Tel: +49-761-808011, Fax: +49-761-808012, e-mail: johann.goldammer@fire.uni-freiburg.de



  • Maxwell Phiri: Community based fire management; experiences from the FAO funded project in the provinces of Manicaland and Matabeleland North, Zimbabwe

    Community based fire management; experiences from the FAO funded project in the provinces of Manicaland and Matabeleland North, Zimbabwe

    Phiri, Maxwell1 and Zingwena, Stephen2

    Zimbabwe‘s Fast Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP) which commenced in 2000, resulted in re-distribution of land to 300 000 more smallholder farmers. The presence of a large number of households on previously sparsely populated farms resulted in an upsurge in the forest fire incidents owing mainly to poor land clearing methods. In an effort to control fire occurrences, the Government launched a National Fire Protection Strategy in June 2006, which gave various responsibilities to its departments and structures.
    In 2008, the Forestry Commission sought partnership with the FAO to implement a pilot 15-month long community-based fire management project aimed at reducing forest fire emergencies through the use of fire as a resource. A total of 200 facilitators were capacitated with skills and fire fighting tools and equipment. Fire emergencies were reduced by +30% in the project areas. This paper discusses the above project which was implemented in selected communities of two provinces. Community-based fire management facilitators were trained and then led the process of fire management in their respective communities through early fire season controlled burning, awareness raising and actual fighting of fires. The paper also suggests the way to go on community fire management in Zimbabwe.

     

    1 Junior Technical Officer, Forestry, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), email: maxwell.phiri@fao.org
    2 Operations Manager- Forestry Commission, email: szingwena@forestry.co.zw



  • Robin Beatty: Fire as a Resource - \\\'Grass roots\\\' CBFiM in developing Africa

    Fire as a Resource – ‘Grass roots’ CBFiM in developing Africa

    Robin Beatty1

    Although controlled burning is recognized as an important component of integrated fire management, implementation in developing Africa remains problematic with programs often dominated by fire prevention and suppression. Managing fire as a resource focuses on the benefits of fire and employs controlled burning to manage wildfires, land-use and the environment. Community based fire management (CBFiM) programs in southern Africa use this approach to improve livelihoods without costly machinery or resources. Based on traditional knowledge, existing skills and institutions, fire management is made accessible to individual community members. Driven by land-use objectives, fire regimes (timing, intensity and frequency) are established through 'grass roots' level decision-making and coordination to minimize wildfires, and to enhance land-use and the environment. Integration into regional fire management through neighbour collaboration achieves effective fire management over large areas of differing land tenure. The approach has wider application to other developing regions and reducing green house emissions.

     

    1 Fire Management Specialist, 321Fire, Inhambane, Mozambique



Parallel Session 3C

  • Dr. Annapurna Nand Das: Causes, consequences and management strategy for wildfires in Nepal

    Causes, consequences and management strategy for wildfires in Nepal

    Dr. Annapurna Nand Das1

    Wildfires have increasingly become a cause of concern for the Constituent Assembly and the Government of Nepal. The major causes of wildfires are manmade. Erratic climatic variation, prolonged dry season and very low winter rainfall in recent years have increased the incidences of wildfires in Nepal. As a result serious threats have occurred to lives and properies, destruction and degradation of forests of high biodiversity richness in Nepal. The institutional capacity to combat the wildfires is weak. The Natural Resources Committee of the Constituent Assembly has directed the government to take necessary actions and bring programmes to combat wildfires. The government has recently approved the Forest Fire Management Strategy which has given high priority to participatory forest fire management; public awareness programmes; legal reforms; and capacity building of government and community institutions. This paper analyses the causes and consequences of forest fires, highlights the content of the new forest fire management strategy and describes the future government priorities to combat forest fires in Nepal.

     

    1 Chief, Planning and Human Resources Division, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Nepal



  • Rodrigo de Moraes Falleiro: Control of forest fires in indigenous lands of cerrado: a case of Tangar

    Control of forest fires in indigenous lands of cerrado: a case of Tangará da Serra, Brazil

    Rodrigo de Moraes Falleiro1, César Augusto Chirosa Horie2, Maristella Aparecida Correa3.

    The Brazilian cerrado is a mosaic of savannas shaped by the diversity of fire regimes. Fire has been used by the indigenous communities that inhabit the area for thousands of years for managing their ecosystem by periodic burnings in order to maximize the utilization of natural resources and reduce the risk of wildfires. In order to reduce the fire and the damage caused by it, the IBAMA and FUNAI drew up a control program in the Indigenous Lands (IL) Tirecatinga, Irantxe, Myky, Paresi and Utiariti. Control programs previously implemented in other similar ILs in Mato Grosso were restricted to the formation of community fire brigades in the villages (application of standardized courses for the brigades and distribution of combat equipments). From the observation that these brigades have failed in all the areas in which they were implemented, a more broad and complex plan, divided into four steps was laid out: participatory workshops, fire brigade courses, implementation of brigades (communities and contracted brigades) and evaluation of results. The methodology applied provided a broad understanding of the social context of the community in spite of the problems commonly observed in the operational plans of fire control. One of the most important observations was that the priorities of the indigenous people are focused in integrating themselves into the surrounding society, which requires dedication and resources. Thus, the traditional activities of hunting and gathering and management of fire that was used to potentialize them became secondary and virtually ignored. A strategy to control the fires that also respects and preserves the cultures of these populations is by preserving their traditional customs, while providing alternative remuneration. This will guaranty and enforce plans for combat and fire management as well as operational plans for protection against fire.

     

    1 IBAMA: Institute of Environment/Ministry of Environment, Av. Coelho e Campos, 278. Centro, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. CEP: 49037-550. falleirorm@yahoo.com.br
    2 ICMBio: Chico Mendes Institute/Ministry of Environment, Vila Balbina; Amazonas, Brazil, cesarchirosa@yahoo.com.br
    3 FUNAI: National Indian Foundation/Ministry of Justice .Tangara da Serra-Mato Grosso, Brazil, maiirantxe@hotmail.com



  • Said Helal: From Fire Prevention to Rural Development: A Community Based Fire Management Case Study from Syria

    From Fire Prevention to Rural Development: A Community Based Fire Management Case Study from Syria

    Said Helal1

    The majority of wildfires in Syria (95%) are human caused and are often associated with changes in land use patterns and practices. Further, lack of appropriate land development policies in Syria have led to extensive deforestation and ecologically inappropriate fire use. This situation could change positively if the access to natural resources by the local population would be better considered in the legal and regulatory systems. The recognition of local people‘s rights would reduce land tenure conflicts, whereby stakeholders will take their role to protect forests from fire and cutting.

    The ultimate outcome of the on-going FAO Project is the establishment of ―an integrated community-based fire management system‖. This system includes community development plans, application of silvicultural practices and fuel reduction techniques with the involvement of local community-based organizations within pilot forest areas.

    Training of community representatives and local staff on sustainable forest and natural resources management, and on the development of incomes generating activities are also part of this project.

    To make Integrated Forest and Community Based Fire Management a viable option in Syrian forestry, the Project continues to promote an ecosystem approach to achieve greater integration and participation of communities. By strengthening livelihoods, working on food security and poverty alleviation of forest and mountain inhabitants within a framework of integrated watershed management the negative impacts of fires are thought to be reduced.

     

    1 said.helal@fao.org



Parallel Session 3D

  • Val Charlton: Firewise Communities in South Africa - 5 years on

    Firewise Communities in South Africa – 5 years on 1

    Val Charlton 2

    The Wildland Urban Interface is a problem in South Africa just as much as the rest of the globe. South Africa is a mix of first world/third world scenarios where dire poverty, high unemployment, food insecurity and limited infrastructure in many rural areas is in juxtaposition against bustling first world cities surrounded by both affluent dormitory towns and slums made of informal dwellings built by migrant work-seekers hoping for a better life in the city. All this combined in biodiversity-rich ecosystems that are fire adapted and depend on periodic fires to rejuvenate and perpetuate natural pattern and process.

    In 2005 the Working on Fire Programme initiated a fire awareness and prevention pilot project modeled upon Firewise Communities USA, adapting this model to suit the African situation where most of the rural population has no option but to stay in place during a wildland fire, and where at the other end of the scale, affluent homeowners and developers are increasingly building houses in fireprone natural landscapes without consideration of the natural fire regime.

    The presentation illustrates the progress made from pilot to a fully-fledged Firewise Communities programme. Using video and case study excerpts, it will take the audience to a variety of different situations and demonstrate the flexibility of the model to work across widely differing economic, environmental, social and cultural dynamics.



  • Leonardo Chavez: Emergencies causing higher fire risks: Hurricane Felix in Nicaragua

    Emergencies causing higher fire risks: Hurricane Felix in Nicaragua

    Leonardo Chavez and Herbert Patterson

    Fire risk can be increased or complicated when other emergencies occur. In Nicaragua different emergencies influence wildland fire risks. Severe outbreaks of the southern pine beetle developed in native forests of Pinus caribaea and P. oocarpa in Nicaragua between 1999 and 2002 in northern Nicaragua. This caused in Nueva Segiovia, an increase of fuel and of fire risk. The situation was complicated by an earlier emergency which had left personal mines in the same forests. While the place of these mines originally was known they where later removed to other places by landslides as a consequence of a hurricane.

    This paper will analyse the consequences of the Hurricane Felix (2007) in another part of the country; the Región Autónoma del Atlántico. The hurricane felled many forest trees, which caused a mayor fire risk during the following summers. Government agencies with the local community and with support from FAO worked on the reduction of this risk and strengthen the livelihoods of affected population.
    The paper highlights the importance of the used community based and integrated fire management approach in order to reduce fire risks during the following fire seasons.



  • Herbert Haltenhoff Duarte: The Forest fires in Chile: Change the paradigm: Control strategies or citizen participation

    The Forest fires in Chile: Change the paradigm: Control strategies or citizen participation

    Herbert Haltenhoff Duarte 1

    This paper describes the principles behind the policy change and strategies to combat forest fires in Chile, of which 100% due to human activities, and shows concrete examples of good results.

    In Chile, forest fires are closely linked to human actions, either through negligence, carelessness or irrationality in the use of fire, but not as a natural element for regulating the dynamics of our forests. To deal with this reality, which affects more than 45% of the country or 37.1 million hectares, the government implemented the Forest Fire Program in the 1960s to support fire fighting actions. However, the problem continued and losses to forest and social resources kept increasing. As of 2010, there have been more than 192 000 forest fires affecting 2 million hectares. Of these, more than 1,169 forest fires have been of great magnitude.
    At the beginning, it‘s important to be clear, unless we are prepared to deceive: "There is no single definition of what constitutes a Forest Fire." Although it seems obvious and basic, the definition and concept of a Forest Fire requires consensus and awareness, among those involved in the issue of forest fires and the community. The rural community has opposing views and expresses its ideas according to its development needs.

    Moreover, it is safe to say that current forest fire analysis has focused on the knowledge of physical parameters (vegetation, topography, weather, fire behavior). The study of the "natural system" has made great advances, such as digital maps of areas of potential risk to forest resources, establishment of information networks and even the definition of Legal regulations. However, the social component of analysis associated with these events has occupied a secondary place.

    This has led us to reflect and change the paradigm of how to deal with forest fires, not only supporting fire control resources, which are more and more expensive, but investing in a comprehensive forest fire prevention strategy. The prevention strategy is planned, systematic, comprehensive, participatory and long-term, focusing the action in those territorial units (municipalities) more critical to optimize economic resources, with a specific and active participation by community and social actors. The strategy includes the concept of risk management in a transversal approach, which balances the need to protect forest resources and rural development plans with the security of the population.

    We should worry most about the people, not the objects: our main goal is to improve the quality of life of the community. We should not treat the community as part of the problem, but as part of the solution of the solution.

     

    1 Forestry, Psychologist, Magister Human Settlements and Environment PUC. Chief of National Forest Fire Prevention Program, Gerencia Manejo del Fuego, Corporación Nacional Forestal. Paseo Bulnes Nº285, of. 503, Santiago, Chile. hhaltenh@conaf.cl.



  • Moses Khangale: An overview of strategies to improve integrated fire management in South Africa, with special reference to Fire Protection Associations

    An overview of strategies to improve integrated fire management in South Africa, with special reference to Fire Protection Associations

    Moses Khangale1

    Veldfires are a common feature of the South African landscape, and are the inevitable consequence of a combination of fire-prone vegetation and a warm, dry climate. The National Veld and Forest Fire Act, 101 of 1998 (NVFFA) was promulgated in 1998 specifically to provide a legislative framework for the management of veldfires in the country. This legislation provides explicitly for compliance with environmental requirements as well as for the management of risk to life and property.

    Chapter two of the NVFFA makes provision for the establishment of Fire Protection Associations (FPAs) which are community based natural resource management organizations for the collective management of veldfires, using local knowledge within the framework provided by the Act. The Act provides for FPAs for two main reasons i.e. veldfires often become emergencies because they threaten life and assets on the property where they have started or when they spread beyond the boundaries of any one property and veldfires often require co-operation to manage the conditions that determine their occurrence, to prevent and control veldfires, and to use controlled burning for environmental and other purposes.

    Since the promulgation of NVFFA the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) has registered over 200 FPAs across the country. These FPAs are executing their duties as outlined in the legislation and the presentation will evaluate the challenges, success factors, etc that these structures are confronted with in the execution of their duties. The presentation will also include mechanisms/ strategies that DAFF is putting in place in order to enhance the work of these FPAs.

     

    1 Department Of Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries, South Africa



Parallel Session 4A

  • Wilfrid Schroeder: A fine look at the MODIS global active fire product using Landsat-class data: Summary of validation activities and future developments

    A fine look at the MODIS global active fire product using Landsat-class data: Summary of validation activities and future developments

    Wilfrid Schroeder1, Ivan Csiszar2, Louis Giglio3, Christopher Justice4

    The availability of 30m resolution Landsat-class imagery has provided a valuable reference data set to assess and quantify the performance of the MODIS/Terra 1km global fire product. Using approximately 2,500 coincident ASTER scenes and 2,000 near-coincident Landsat5 TM scenes distributed globally, we analyzed a wide range of MODIS/Terra observation conditions and fire types and quantified the associated commission and omission errors. Areas of higher commission errors were found along the deforestation frontier in the Brazilian Amazon, whereas higher omission errors were observed over heavy smoke-contaminated fires in high latitude forests. Overall, false alarms occurring in areas without any indication of burning activity accounted for less than 2% of all fire pixels sampled. Omission errors were highly sensitive to fire size, tree coverage, and pixel area as a function of scan angle. Plans for the validation of the active fire product from the next generation VIIRS sensor are also outlined.

     

    1 Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD – USA. wilfrid.schroeder@noaa.gov
    2 Center for Satellite Applications and Research, NOAA/NESDIS, Camp Springs, MD – USA ivan.csiszar@noaa.gov
    3 Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, MD – USA. giglio@hermes.geog.umd.edu
    4 Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, MD – USA. justice@hermes.geog.umd.edu



  • L. Viegas: Wildfires and Climatic Variability in African Woodlands

    Wildfires and Climatic Variability in African Woodlands

    L. Viegas1 and D. Stevenson2

    Land management practices and rapid climate change have been disrupting natural fire regimes, increasing the severity of wildfires in many ecosystems, degrading soil and water resources, increasing vulnerability to erosion by wind, precipitation and floods, decreasing biodiversity and, in extreme cases, ultimately leading to desertification. Furthermore, pyrogenic emissions from biomass burning impact the radiative balance of the troposphere, significantly contributing to the greenhouse effect, and are also an important source of atmospheric pollution. The objective of this research was to investigate the impact of climate variability on geographic, ecological, seasonal and inter-annual distributions and magnitudes of biomass burning in African woodlands, and on the correspondent quantity and quality of pyrogenic emissions. With this purpose, 10 years of monthly, 1°x1° gridded, pyrogenic emissions data, from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED), were compared with land-cover data, from the Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS), and with data of climate parameters, from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) and the Global Hydrology Resource Centre (GHRC). Overall, the climate parameters that showed significant statistical relationships with carbon emissions (absolute rank-correlations above 70%) were air and soil temperature and air and soil humidity, during the fire season, and also precipitation, up to 6 months preceding the fire events. Good statistical quantitative models of burnt area and carbon emissions (correlations above 70%, and up to 95%, between estimated and predicted values, with residuals normally distributed) using humidity, temperature or lagged rainfall as predictors, were found in areas where fire behaviour was more regular. These fire models and quantitative statistical relationships between climate and wildfire patterns could be used, for example, in predictive climate models, land management, fire risk assessment and mitigation of climate change.

    Keywords: fire behaviour, wildfires, African woodlands, land ecosystems

    1 School of Geosciences, The University of Edinburgh, Scotland. E-mail: viegas-de-barros@ed.ac.uk
    2 School of Geosciences, The University of Edinburgh, Scotland. E-mail: dstevens@staffmail.ed.ac.uk



  • Ilaria Palumbo: Linking fire seasonality and burning intensity derived from MODIS time series: a tool for the management of African protected areas

    Linking fire seasonality and burning intensity derived from MODIS time series: a tool for the management of African protected areas

    Ilaria Palumbo1, Jean-Marie Grégoire2, Mihkel Punga3

    Fire is a key driver in African savannas and controls the vegetation distribution; therefore park managers use fire as a tool to promote the habitat diversity. This study analyses the spatio-temporal dynamics of burning in nearly 750 protected areas (PAs) using the MODIS active fire product; this includes information on the Fire Radiative Power (FRP) which informs on the fire intensity. Considering the seasonality, our continental scale results show that mid or late season fires prevail. As regards the fire intensity, the mean FRP ranges from 10 MW, at the beginning of the dry season, to nearly 400 MW towards the end. Most PAs show an annual FRP of 40-50 MW on average, depending on their dominant vegetation type. The highest FRP values are observed in the shrubland and grassland landcovers, with ranges between 10-470 MW and 10-500 MW respectively. These results can contribute to improve fire management in conservation areas.

    1 DG - Joint Research Centre, Global Environment Monitoring Unit
    Via Fermi, TP 440, I-21027 Ispra (VA) ITALY, ilaria.palumbo@jrc.ec.europa.eu
    2 DG - Joint Research Centre, Global Environment Monitoring Unit
    Via Fermi, TP 440, I-21027 Ispra (VA) ITALY, jean-marie.gregoire@jrc.ec.europa.eu
    3 DG - Joint Research Centre, Global Environment Monitoring Unit
    Via Fermi, TP 440, I-21027 Ispra (VA) ITALY



Parallel Session 4B

  • Luigi Boschetti: REDD and Wildland Fires: the contribution of satellite observation systems.

    REDD and Wildland Fires: the contribution of satellite observation systems.

    Luigi Boschetti1, David Roy2, Christopher Justice1

    Fire is a complex biophysical process with multiple direct and indirect effects on the atmosphere, the biosphere and the hydrosphere. It is widely recognized that, in some fire prone environments, fire disturbance is essential to maintain the ecosystem in a state of equilibrium.
    Reducing the emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) associated with fire requires an understanding of the process of fire in forest systems (either as an ecological change agent, a disturbance, a forest management tool, or as a process associated with land cover conversion) and how fire emissions are calculated. Although fire might be a threat to REDD initiatives aimed at reducing deforestation and degradation, fire is an integral component of REDD if the fire emissions are directly addressed through integrated fire and forest management programs. The presentation will give an overview of the way satellite observations could be integrated in REDD measuring reporting and verification (MRV) national systems.

    References:
    GOFC-GOLD Sourcebook - A sourcebook of method and procedures for monitoring and reporting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals caused by deforestation, gains and losses of carbon stocks in forests remaining forests, and forestation.
    Available online at http://www.gofc-gold.uni-jena.de/redd/
    1 University of Maryland, Department of Geography, LeFrak Hall, College Park, MD20742 USA. Email: luigi@hermes.geog.umd.edu, justice@hermes.geog.umd.edu
    2 GIScCE, South Dakota State University, Wecota Hall, Brookings, SD57007, USA. Email: david.roy@sdstate.edu



  • G. Ruecker: High Resolution Active Fire Monitoring for Global Change Analysis: the upcoming FireBIRD satellite mission

    High Resolution Active Fire Monitoring for Global Change Analysis: the upcoming FireBIRD satellite mission

    G. Ruecker1, E. Lorenz2, A.A. Hoffmann3, D. Oertel4, J. Tiemann5, W. Halle 6

    The German experimental satellite mission BIRD (2001 – 2004) demonstrated the capabilities of spaceborne high resolution remote sensing for fire detection and characterization. BIRD was able to detect and characterize small fires that were missed by other sensors such as MODIS or Meteosat SEVIRI and could characterize large fires without suffering from saturation problems such as the Envisat AATSR instrument.

    The upcoming German FireBIRD mission consists of two satellites: TET-1 and BIROS to be launched in early 2011 and 2013, respectively. Both satellites will carrier fire-adapted InfraRed (IR) sensors similar to the BIRD sensors. Based on the BIRD-experience, the two new satellite IR sensor systems feature innovative concepts such as near real time on-board processing of fire data.
    The present paper highlights potential applications of FireBIRD for monitoring gas and particulate matter emissions from wildland fires and studying fire behaviour. Based on a literature review and reanalysis of historical BIRD data, we show that small and cool fires not detected by current space-borne sensors may contribute significantly to global emissions of trace gases and highlight opportunities to improve our knowledge on these fires through the FireBIRD mission. We also demonstrate potential applications of high resolution fire monitoring in the UN-REDD process.

    1 ZEBRIS GbR, Lipowskystr. 26, 81373, Germany, gruecker@zebris.com
    2 German Aerospace Center (DLR) e.V., Rutherfordstraße 2, 12489 Berlin, eckehard.lorenz@dlr.de
    3 Consultant, Uhlandstr. 15 74889 Sinsheim, Germany, aahoffman@email.de
    4 German Aerospace Center (DLR) e.V., Rutherfordstraße 2, 12489 Berlin, dieter.oertel@dlr.de
    5 ZEBRIS GbR, Lipowskystr. 26, 81373, Germany, jtiemann@zebris.com
    6 German Aerospace Center (DLR) e.V., Rutherfordstraße 2, 12489 Berlin, winfried.halle@dlr.de



  • Gavin Hough: Vision Systems for Wildfire Detection

    Vision Systems for Wildfire Detection

    Gavin Hough1 and George Day2

    Detection centres providing early detection require dispatch centres in order to effectively deliver the fire onset, fire line mapping and fire development imagery with associated GIS information. Government and corporate users work from dispatch centres where fire permits are issued, risk associated phenomena are tracked including ―in-plantation‖ work permits, lightning tracking and environmental services are included the tracking of emission inventories and the regulation of permit burns when visibility is compromised. Private growers and other land owners within the FPA access the same services without the use of dispatch centres by logging into the related online services.

    Keywords: Wildfire detection cameras, visions systems, environmental monitoring, geo-referenced surveillance, near IR, low light level imaging, ICS, ForestWatch, machine vision, digital image processing & panoramic imaging

    1 EnviroVision Solutions, 27-29 Hofmeyer Road, Westville, Durban 3629, RSA. gavin@EVSolutions.biz
    2 EnviroVision Solutions, 480 NE Oakland Ave, Roseburg, OR 97470-5607, USA george@EVSolutions.biz



Parallel Session 5A

  • David Rhodes: Climate Change and Carbon Management - Playing with Fire

    Climate Change and Carbon Management - Playing with Fire

    David Rhodes,1 Glen Mackie2

    Global warming creates some obvious challenges for those charged with forest fire management. This may manifest itself directly through increased temperatures and prolonged dry periods or indirectly through the influence of more prevalent pests and diseases on tree mortality and hence fire load.
    Less obvious is the influence of another factor – that of developing markets for carbon credits which makes managing carbon balances an important issue for fire managers.
    New Zealand has lead the world in establishing a national Carbon Emissions Trading Scheme that includes forestry. Carbon credit revenue can fundamentally alter the nature of a forest investment. In New Zealand it is influencing key management decisions such as species selection, site selection, silviculture, rotation length and even whether a forest is harvested at all. The implications of this for fire managers will be considered.

     

    1 Chief Executive, New Zealand Forest Owners Association, david.rhodes@nzfoa.org.nz
    2 Senior Policy Analyst,New Zealand Forest Owners Association, glen.mackie@nzfoa.org.nz



  • Anatoly Shvidenko: Carbon Emissions from Forest Fires in Boreal Eurasia in 1998-2010

    Carbon Emissions from Forest Fires in Boreal Eurasia in 1998-2010

    Anatoly Shvidenko1, Dmitry Schepaschenko2, Ian McCallum3, Anatoly Sukhinin4, Shamil Maksyutov5

    We present results of a quantitative analysis of fire regimes and a verified assessment of fire carbon emissions in Northern Eurasia‘s forests (limited to territories of Russia) for 1998-2010. Burnt areas were defined based on a consistent methodology (using AVHRR data modified to eliminate biases) over the period. A hybrid land cover was used for identification of forest classes and quantification of fuel classes (for each 1km2 pixel). Consumption of fuel was assessed based on multi year empirical data on distribution of fire type, time of burning, and bioclimatic zone. The average burnt area is estimated at 5.05x106 ha (~63% of the area of all vegetation fires) with seasonal variation from 3.16x106 ha (1999) to 13.17x106 ha (2003). Average amount of consumed carbon is estimated at 94.6 Tg yr-1, from 39.5 Tg yr-1 (2004) to 202.8 Tg yr-1 (2003). Uncertainty of annual emissions is estimated at 25-30% (CI 0.9). Specific density of consumed carbon (average 18.73 Mg C yr-1ha-2) and composition of products of burning depend mostly on attributes of seasonal fire regimes and regional distribution of burnt areas.

    1 International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria, shvidenk@iiasa.ac.at; Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok, 660036 Krasnoyarsk
    2 International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria, schepd@iiasa.ac.at; Moscow State Forest University, Mytischi, Moscow region, Russia
    3 International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria, mccallum@iiasa.ac.at
    4 Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok, 660036 Krasnoyarsk, boss@ksc.krasn.ru
    5 National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan, shamil@nies.go.jp



  • Garry Cook: Fire management for greenhouse abatement in northern Australia

    Fire management for greenhouse abatement in northern Australia

    Garry Cook1 and Mick Meyer

    Savanna burning contributes between 2 and 4 % of Australia's accountable Greenhouse gas emissions. Very significant contributions occur annually from frequently recurring large late-dry season wildfires burning under severe fire-weather conditions. We show that these emissions can be reduced through strategic early dry season burning, with additional benefits to biodiversity and livelihoods in remote areas with little other support for economic activity. The approach relies on the lower fuel consumption of early dry season fires, and their ability to reduce overall fire frequency and emissions. Reducing fire frequency reduces emissions of greenhouse gases from savannas because more of the litter is decomposed biologically following pathways that, compared with severe savanna fires, produces fewer emissions per unit of litter consumed. Contrary to other published evidence our work shows that therer is little effect of seasonality on relative proportions of methane and nitrous oxide emitted from burning, so that we conclude that fire management can provide a valuable contribution to reducing total emissions of these gases. We discuss the assumptions, calculations and data supporting this approach to emissions abatement.

    1 Principal Research Scientist, CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences. Postal Address: PMB 44 Winnellie NT 0822 Australia. Street Address: 564 Vanderlin Drive Berrimah NT 0828 Australia. Phone: +61 8 8944 8427 | Fax: +61 8 8944 8427 | Mobile: 0407548427. Garry.Cook@csiro.au Website: www.csiro.au



  • C.P. (Mick) Meyer: Options for verification of greenhouse gas emissions from savanna burning using atmospheric constraints

    Options for verification of greenhouse gas emissions from savanna burning using atmospheric constraints

    C.P. (Mick) Meyer1, M. E. Cope2, Sunhee Lee3, S.A.Young4, Stefan Maier5

    T Fires in tropical savanna woodlands in Australia are calculated to contribute 26 - 130 Tg of carbon to the atmosphere in the form of greenhouse gases (GHG), reactive organic compounds and organic aerosol. This comprises 3 -5% of Australia‘s national GHG emissions and 3 - 5% of global carbon emissions from biomass burning. The emissions are currently calculated using standard bottom-up algorithms using parameter values determined from ground measurements. Of necessity, these sample the Australian savannas extremely sparsely resulting in a significant risk of biases and other systematic errors in the regional emission estimates. However, emissions can be verified by comparing their consequent atmospheric concentrations with independent measurements from surface monitoring stations or remotely sensed observations from satellite. This paper assesses the potential for constraining the bottom-up emissions estimates in Northern Australian savanna woodlands by timeseries of aerosol and ozone concentration and aerosol optical depth. The current bottom-up methodologies appear to be relatively reliable at the regional scale. The potential for improving spatial accuracy is discussed.his is the Abstract Body style

    1 Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Aspendale, Vic, Australia
    2 Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Aspendale, Vic, Australia
    3 Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Aspendale, Vic, Australia
    4 Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Aspendale, Vic, Australia
    5 Charles Darwin University, Casuarina, NT, Australia



  • Cameron Yates: Implementing the savanna burning emissions abatement research program in northern Australia

    Implementing the savanna burning emissions abatement research program in northern Australia

    Cameron Yates1

    The tropical savannas of northern Australia constitute one of the most fire prone biomes globally with in excess of 350,000km² burnt annually. The bulk of this fire activity occurs late in the dry season when fuels are dry and prevailing winds are conducive to extensive and relatively intense fires. The savannas are sparsely populated with little infrastructure or resources to manage wildfire, and comprise mainly Aboriginal, pastoral, conservation and defence lands. In the absence of significant economic opportunities for regional land managers, especially remote Aboriginal communities, a major challenge is to develop a sustainable economic base which promotes culturally appropriate land management activities. Since the late 1990s a consortium involving Aboriginal communities and their representative organisations, and mainstream university and government institutions, has researched carbon market opportunities associated with reducing emissions from savanna burning, and associated sequestration in living biomass, through re-implementation of strategic fire management at landscape scales. Starting with the first project now successfully implemented over 28,000 km2 in Aboriginal-owned western Arnhem Land, the consortium is in the process of developing four more large regional-scale projects in fire-prone regions of northern Australia. This presentation describes (1) the scientific program associated with the development of regional project-scale savanna burning inventories (fire mapping, fuel-type mapping, field assessment, GIS assembly), and (2) the practical consultation, planning and logistic realities associated with implementing that program in the field.

     

    1 Bushfires NT, PO Box 37346, Winnellie NT 0821, Australia. cameron.yates@nt.gov.au



Parallel Session 5B

  • Roy S. Wittkuhn: Resilience of open forests and shrublands to contrasting fire interval sequences in a Mediterranean environment of south-west Western Australia

    Resilience of open forests and shrublands to contrasting fire interval sequences in a Mediterranean environment of south-west Western Australia

    Roy S. Wittkuhn1, Lachie McCaw2, Allan J. Wills3, Richard Robinson4, Alan N. Andersen5, Paul Van Heurck6, Janet Farr7, Graeme Liddelow8, Ray Cranfield9

    There is limited information about how biota respond to different fire regimes, especially at a whole-of-community level. We studied the response of vascular plants, ants, beetles, vertebrates and macrofungi to different fire interval sequences resulting from planned and unplanned fires in ecosystems of southwestern Australia. Using data spanning 1972–2004, we investigated community-level responses to consecutive short (SS: ≤ 5 years), consecutive long (LL: ≥ 10 years), one very long (VL: 30 years), or mixed/moderate (M: 6–9 years) fire interval(s) in forest and shrubland ecosystems. All sites were sampled at a common time-since-fire of ~ 4 years . The influence of fire interval sequences on taxonomic groups was minimal and difficult to detect, suggesting a biota that is highly resilient to fire. There was weak evidence of compositional differences between SS and LL/VL regimes for plants, ants, beetles and macrofungi but no difference between either of these regimes and the M-regime. Occasional short (3–5 years) intervals between fires are unlikely to have a persistent effect on community composition, though a sustained regime of short or long intervals may alter species composition and/or abundance. We suggest that variability in fire intervals is important for long-term conservation of the biota.

    1 Science Division, Department of Environment and Conservation, Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, WA, 6983, Australia. Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre, Level 5, 340 Albert St, East Melbourne, VIC, 3002, Australia
    2 Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre, Level 5, 340 Albert St, East Melbourne, VIC, 3002, Australia. Science Division, Department of Environment and Conservation, Locked Bag 2, Manjimup, WA, 6258, Australia. Corresponding author: email Lachie.mccaw@dec.wa.gov.au
    3 Science Division, Department of Environment and Conservation, Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, WA, 6983, Australia
    4 Science Division, Department of Environment and Conservation, Locked Bag 2, Manjimup, WA, 6258, Australia
    5 Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre, Level 5, 340 Albert St, East Melbourne, VIC, 3002, Australia. CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Tropical Ecosystems Research Centre, PMB 44 Winnellie, NT, 0822, Australia
    6 Science Division, Department of Environment and Conservation, Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, WA, 6983, Australia
    7 Science Division, Department of Environment and Conservation, Locked Bag 2, Manjimup, WA, 6258, Australia
    8 Science Division, Department of Environment and Conservation, Locked Bag 2, Manjimup, WA, 6258, Australia
    9 Science Division, Department of Environment and Conservation, Locked Bag 2, Manjimup, WA, 6258, Australia



  • Winston S.W.Trollope: The Mun-Ya-Wana Private Game Reserve - a leader in South Africa in using a Decision Support System for Prescribed Burning

    The Mun-Ya-Wana Private Game Reserve – a leader in South Africa in using a Decision Support System for Prescribed Burning

    Winston S.W.Trollope1, Lynne A.Trollope2, Simon J. Naylor3, Ross R. Goode4, Philip de Bruyn5, Stanley Chesworth6, Christian H. Schütte7

    The assessment of range condition is a key requirement for the successful use of prescribed burning in wildlife management systems. The Mun-Ya-Wana Private Game Reserve comprising the Phinda, Zuka and Bumbeni sections, are leaders in Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa, in the use of range condition data for managing the rangelands on the Reserve. Prescribed burning is one of the essential range management practices used for improving the productivity and biodiversity of the grass sward and for controlling the encroachment of bush species like Dichrostachys cinerea. This is achieved through the use of a decision support system involving ecological criteria based on the condition of the grass sward. For this purpose the different species in the grass sward are divided into three ecological categories based on their reaction to grazing intensity viz.:
    - Decreaser species – palatable and productive grass species that decrease when rangeland is under- or over-grazed;
    - Increaser I species – less palatable and productive grass species that dominate when rangeland is under- or selectively grazed;
    - Increaser II species – less palatable and productive pioneer grass species that increase when rangeland is over-grazed.
    Using this classification prescribed burning is not applied if the grass sward is in a pioneer condition dominated by Increaser II grass species caused by overgrazing. This is in order to enable the sward to develop to a more productive and resilient stage dominated by Decreaser grass species. Conversely when the grass sward is either under or selectively grazed dominated by Increaser I species burning is applied to encourage and increase the better fire adapted and more productive and palatable Decreaser grass species. Finally controlled burning is applied when the grass sward has become overgrown and moribund as a result of excessive self-shading and is generally when the standing crop of grass is >4 000 kg ha-1. A range condition monitoring program was initiated on the Reserve in 1998 and using data from the annual assessments together with the aforementioned criteria for prescribed burning, the proportion of Decreaser grass species and the forage potential of the grass sward has increased two fold since using this decision support system to manage the fire management program on the Reserve.

    1 Working on Fire International, 38 Durban Street, Fort Beaufort, 5720, South Africa: winfire@procomp.co.za
    2 Working on Fire International, 38 Durban Street, Fort Beaufort, 5720, South Africa: winfire@procomp.co.za
    3 Reserve Manager, Beyond, Phinda, Mun-Ya-Wana Game Reserve, Hluhluwe, South Africa: simon.naylor@andbeyond.com
    4 Consultant, Mun-Ya-Wana Game Reserve, Hluhluwe, South Africa: ross.goode@gmail.com
    5 Head Ranger Beyond, Forest-,Vlei Lodge and Homestead, Phinda Private Game Reserve, Hluhluwe, South Africa:philip.debruyn@andbeyond.com
    6 Reserve Manager, Zuka, Mun-Ya-Wana Game Reserve, Hluhluwe, South Africa: stan@zuka.co.za
    7 Owner, Bumbeni, Mun-Ya-Wana Game Reserve, Hluhluwe, South Africa: chschutte@tlantic.net



  • Govender, N.: Experimenting with high intensity fires to combat bush thickening in the Kruger National Park

    Experimenting with high intensity fires to combat bush thickening in the Kruger National Park

    Govender, N.1, Smit, I.2, Pienaar, D.3, Dold, J.4, English, D.5 & Thompson, R.6

    The Kruger National Park has over time seen a steady decrease in large trees (>10m) in most landscapes with a concurrent densification of the shrub layer on the high rainfall western granitic landscape. Woody shrubs, especially Combretum and Terminalia, are increasing in density and height in what used to be much more open landscapes. This process (bush densification or encroachment) has been recorded over large areas all along the eastern parts of South Africa. Scientists are attributing this to a reduction of fire and overgrazing in many areas and an increase in atmospheric CO2 levels due to the competitive advantage woody vegetation have over savanna grasses, which have evolved under lower CO2 conditions. This translates into a potential loss of a crucial biome, savannas, which makes up a large part of Africa‘s land cover and sustains millions of people and their livelihoods.
    In order to address this issue, we developed a research project to determine the desirability and feasibility of experimenting with high intensity fires that can be used to combat the increasing national problem of densification of indigenous woody vegetation into grassland systems. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the effect of high intensity fire on the density (visibility) of woody vegetation (especially shrubs), (2) determine the effect of high intensity fires on tall trees (>10m) with and without elephant impact and (3) after opening of the shrub layer determine the fire regime that will allow tall trees (marula, knobthorn) to escape the ―fire trap‖.
    A controlled fire of this scale and intensity is a first for South Africa if not globally. Details presented in this paper will concentrate on the vegetation data collected pre and post application and the method of ignition with some preliminary results on fire severity, fire char heights, modeled fire rate of spread and the tall tree elephant impact data.

    1 South African National Parks
    2 South African National Parks
    3 South African National Parks
    4 University of Manchester
    5 South African National Parks
    6 South African National Parks



  • Manoj Chandran: Replacing controlled burning practice by alternate methods of reducing fuel load in the Himalayan Long leaf Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) forests

    Replacing controlled burning practice by alternate methods of reducing fuel load in the Himalayan Long leaf Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) forests

    Manoj Chandran1, A.R.Sinha2 and R.B.S.Rawat3

    Himalayan Long Leaf Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.), owing to its resin content and the needle fall coinciding with the hottest months form the major fire vulnerable gregarious forest type in the middle altitude Himalayas. Controlled or prescribed burning has been the traditional practice to reduce fuel load, remove slippery needle litter and promote fresh growth of fodder grass for cattle. This slow burning process allows the heat to reach the subsurface rootstock eventually leading to change in ground flora, reduction in soil moisture holding capacity, reduced regeneration of seedlings and preventing succession to the climatic climax. To reduce needle litter fuel load, without actually burning it, Forest Department of Uttarakhand, a Himalayan province in India has innovated several practical alternate techniques to utilize pine needles for different uses like pine needle check dams, coal briquettes, use in gasifiers, collection of pine cones for ornamental artifacts, better techniques of resin tapping , collection of pine seeds for edible nut and medicinal oil, salvage felling of trees, extraction of torchwood and perfumed chips from dead stumps, reduction of pine from other forest types and active fire monitoring and protection. This paper deals with these non-burning innovative techniques in detail.

    1Indian Forest Service, Deputy Conservator of Forests(Working Plan), Pithoragarh Forest Division, Uttarakhand-262501, INDIA. E-mail:chandranmanoj@hotmail.com
    2 Indian Forest Service, Chief Conservator of Forests(Working Plan and Management), Uttarakhand Forest Training Academy campus, Rampur Road, Haldwani, Uttarakhand. E-mail: amulyasinha@gmail.com
    3 Indian Forest Service, Principal Chief Conservator of Forests, Uttarakhand, 85, Rajpur Road, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, INDIA. E-mail:raghubir22@hotmail.com



  • Rick Sneeuwjagt: The Effectiveness of Prescribed Burning in the Control of Large Eucalypt Forest Fires

    The Effectiveness of Prescribed Burning in the Control of Large Eucalypt Forest Fires

    Rick Sneeuwjagt1

    This paper challenges the misconception by opponents of prescribed burning that there is little evidence that fuel reduction burning is an effective bushfire management tool. A review of Western Australia and Victorian land management literature indicates that there are 30 case studies where fuel reduction burning has contributed to the control of summer bushfires. This paper presents two new case studies in Western Australia that demonstrate the effectiveness of fuel reduction burning in containing large, high intensity bushfires. There is also scientific evidence from the large scale fire behaviour study, called Project Vesta, which demonstrates the strong relationship between forest structural fuel characteristics and fire behaviour. This study demonstrated that the effect of hazard reduction burning on reducing fire behaviour can persist for up to 20 years in forests containing rough-barked trees that are the main source of fire brand and spot fires.

    Western Australian eucalypt forests are among the very few forest types in the world where prescribed burning has been conducted long enough and at large enough scale to quantify its effects on the extent of wildfires. This paper provides evidence from Western Australian statistics of past wildfires and prescribed burn programs that demonstrates that there is a strong relationship between the average annual area of prescribed burning undertaken in the south-west forests, and the rolling average of wildfires that occur in subsequent years. This analysis indicates that an annual prescribed burn program that covers about 6-8 percent of the forested landscape will restrict the average annual area of wildfires to between 0.5 and 1.5 percent of the landscape. These findings are likely to be relevant to other dry fire prone forests throughout the world.

    1 Department of Environment and Conservation (Western Australia). Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre WA 6983. rick.sneeuwjagt@dec.wa.gov.au



Parallel Session 5C

  • Cristina Montiel-Molina: Fire use practices and regulation in Europe: Towards a Fire Framework Directive

    Fire use practices and regulation in Europe: Towards a Fire Framework Directive

    Cristina Montiel-Molina1

    The potential of using fire wisely for different management purposes is receiving recent and growing recognition in Europe. After decades of fire exclusion some countries are considering the fire use regulation in the context of forest policy and different territorial policies. On the other hand, there are European rural communities with a fire culture which depend on the use of fire for its welfare.
    The regulation of fire use practices in Europe adopts a wide variety of formulas: from a controlled burning with no written plans supported by codes of practices, to a prescribed fire with detailed prescriptions adopted in a plan. Besides, fire-relying communities need legislative frameworks which contemplate and regulate their fire use activities as well as reduce un-wanted ignitions through the development of social prevention programs.

    Considering the existing diversity of fire use practices in Europe, according with the management objectives, the influencing factors and the kind of regulations, a new Fire Framework Directive has been proposed in the context of Fire Paradox project for starting a shift in fire policies towards integrated fire management.

    1 Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Department of Regional and Physical Geography), Ciudad Universitaria (Madrid 28040), crismont@ghis.ucm.es



  • Steve Ellis: Reducing Wildfire Impacts on Sagebrush Steppe Plant Communities and Associated Sensitive Species (Greater Sage-Grouse) in the Western United States.

    Reducing Wildfire Impacts on Sagebrush Steppe Plant Communities and Associated Sensitive Species (Greater Sage-Grouse) in the Western United States.

    Steve Ellis 1

    The Department of Interior‘s Bureau of Land Management (BLM) provides stewardship for more land - over 245 million acres of rangelands and forests- than any other Federal agency in the United States. The National System of Public Lands are primarily located in the 12 Western states. The BLM's multiple-use mission is to sustain the health and productivity of these public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations. The Bureau accomplishes this by managing diverse programs such as outdoor recreation, wildlife habitat and rangeland management, energy and mineral development, and by conserving natural, historical, cultural, and other resources on public lands. Wildfires are a major threat to these resources in the Intermountain West, especially the Great Basin, so a high emphasis is placed on wildland fire preparedness and suppression, fuels management, and post-fire rehabilitation. The increase in wildfires is driven in large part by invasive species, especially exotic annual grasses, which promote increased wildfire frequency and spread. The sagebrush steppe ecosystem is home to many wildlife species, and as illustrated by the sage-grouse, are dependent on these unique shrublands that are not adapted to frequent wildfires. A strategy to protect intact sagebrush steppe habitats and communities utilizing a strategic fuels management and fire suppression program and strategically restoring desired plant species is now being implemented. Climate change is making this task more difficult due to the positive response of exotic plants such as cheatgrass to increased carbon dioxide. The challenges faced by BLM in managing natural and human resources in a wildfire prone environment are not unique thus the benefits of exchanging knowledge and experiences on an international basis benefits us all.

     

    1 Bureau of Land Management, Idaho State Director, 1387 S. Vinnell Way, Boise, ID 83709, USA



  • Scott Stephens: Interactions and Burn Severity Patterns among Sierra Nevada Fires: 30 Years of Burning Produces a Sustainable, Resilient Landscape

    Interactions and Burn Severity Patterns among Sierra Nevada Fires: 30 Years of Burning Produces a Sustainable, Resilient Landscape

    Scott Stephens1 and Brandon Collins2

    Fire has been excluded in the majority of North American forests. We investigated interactions between successive naturally occurring fires and assess to what extent the environments in which they burn influence fire patterns and burn severity. Using mapped fire perimeters and satellite-based estimates of fire severity, we demonstrate that fire can exhibit self-limiting characteristics. When the amount of time between successive adjacent fires is under 9 years, and when fire weather is not extreme, the probability of the latter fire burning into the previous fire area is extremely low. High severity patches made up 15% of the total burned area, which consisted of many small patches (<4 ha) and few large patches (>60 ha). Smaller stand-replacing patches were generally associated with shrub-dominated and pine-dominated vegetation types, while larger stand-replacing patches tended to occur in more shade-tolerant, fir-dominated types. This unrestricted fire regime is maintaining ecosystem services and producing forests with high resiliency.

    1 Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley. USA sstephens@berkeley.edu
    2 United States Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Davis, California. USA bmcollins@fs.fed.us



  • Greg G. Forsyth: The challenge of managing fire-prone and fire- adapted vegetation in the Table Mountain National Park

    The challenge of managing fire-prone and fire- adapted vegetation in the Table Mountain National Park

    Greg G. Forsyth1, Philip Prins2 and Brian van Wilgen13

    A key of objective of the Table Mountain National Park is to sustainability conserve biodiversity. Much of the park is covered by fire-prone and fire-adapted fynbos and the use of fire forms an integral part of the management of this vegetation. Fire management is further complicated as the park shares an extensive wildland/urban interface with the City of Cape Town with a population of more than 2 million people. Wildfires, particularly in the dry summer months, are a significant threat to people, neighbouring properties and infrastructure.
    We discuss the park‘s development and the progress it has made in implementing an integrated fire management plan. This plan takes into consideration the park‘s urban setting and the presence of woody invasive alien plants. It is apparent that fires are becoming more frequent and that this may pose a threat to biodiversity.

    Some people are concerned that the balance between the application of fire to regenerate the fynbos has moved too far in favour of fire suppression.

    Park management must abide by municipal legislation which requires them to obtain permission to conduct prescribed burns for ecological or alien plant control reasons. These requests are often denied, especially in the ecologically favourable but dangerous summer months, because the fire management goals of the City of Cape Town relate to safety rather than biodiversity conservation.
    In addition, available funds are often depleted by suppressing unplanned wildfires during the fire season, leaving insufficient funds to cover planned burning operations. This is why the attainment of a mutually accepted approach to fire management remains a difficult challenge.

     

    1 CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, P.O.Box 320, Stellenbosch, 7599. South Africa gforsyth@csir.co.za2 SANParks: Table Mountain National Park
    3 CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, P.O.Box 320, Stellenbosch, 7599. South Africa



  • Gyu-Ho Lim: Decadal variability of the forest fire occurrence and its relation to the climate variables during dry season over the Korean peninsula

    Decadal variability of the forest fire occurrence and its relation to the climate variables during dry season over the Korean peninsula

    Gyu-Ho Lim1, Yun-Young Lee2, Eunho Choi3, Mee-Hyun Cho4, Myoungsoo Won5, and Kyosang Koo6

    This study analyzed the decadal variability of the occurrence of forest fire for the recent two decades (from 1991 to 2008) during dry season over Korean peninsula. Annual time series shows strong decadal variation, dominant increasing and decreasing trend in 1990s and 2000s, respectively, even though slightly increasing trend exists by considering whole period. The decadal variations, increasing and decreasing trend of fire frequency during both decades, are robust for four regions consisting of the southern Korean peninsula. To access the climate effect on the fire occurrence, we dealt with five essential atmospheric variables: mean temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, precipitation free days, and mean days of precipitation interval. For all regions, forest fire frequency has negative correlations with mean temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation, while positive correlation with precipitation free days, and mean days of precipitation interval during total period. Among them, relative humidity has strongest relationship with forest fire frequency, which means humid atmospheric condition might obstruct the forest fire occurrence effectively. From linear regression analysis, the signal of decadal variation is prominent for relative humidity, and mean days of precipitation interval other than other variables. Therefore, it is demonstrated that the decadal variation of relative humidity gives the most favorable condition to the long time variation of forest fire occurrence, which is consistent with the result of correlation analysis.

    1 School of Earth Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-747, Republic of Korea, gyuholim@snu.ac.kr
    2 School of Earth Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-747, Republic of Korea, dolkong400@gmail.com
    3 School of Earth Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-747, Republic of Korea, ceh0409@snu.ac.kr
    4 School of Earth Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-747, Republic of Korea, mhjo77@snu.ac.kr
    5 Korea Forest Research Institute, Seoul, 130-712, Republic of Korea, mswon@forest.go.kr
    6 Korea Forest Research Institute, Seoul, 130-712, Republic of Korea, Kyosang@forest.go.kr



Parallel Session 6A

  • Coert J Geldenhuys: Location pattern of natural forests can tell us how to manage fires at landscape level

    Location pattern of natural forests can tell us how to manage fires at landscape level

    Coert J Geldenhuys1

    Natural evergreen forests are sensitive to fire and the perception of many is that they cannot burn. However, there is evidence that fires very infrequently do destroy natural forests and they have built-in mechanisms to recover from such extreme fire events. More importantly, a study in the Tsitsikamma landscape, South Africa, has shown that the location pattern of natural evergreen forests in the fire-adapted fynbos landscape can be used to assist with fire management and fire control at the landscape level. Natural forests persist in Bergwind/fire shadow areas in the landscape. Commercial timber plantations have been planted in the fire pathways in the landscape and are frequently destroyed by fire because fire protection and control measures have not been put in place at the landscape level. The paper will present the concept, the patterns and consequences during a recent extreme fire in the landscape.

    1 Department of Forest & Wood Science, Stellenbosch University, c/o Forestwood cc, P O Box 228, La Montagne 0184, South Africa



  • S. Archibald: Understanding severe fire events in South Africa

    Understanding severe fire events in South Africa

    S. Archibald1, P. Frost, K. Steenkamp, B. Van Wilgen, R.J. Scholes

    Devastating wildfires can occur in most South African ecosystems. These fires are usually identified in terms of the damage that they cause to property, vegetation, and livelihoods (consequences), but they could also theoretically be identified in terms of their size, length of time they burn, and the energy they release when they burn (characteristics). Linking the consequences to the characteristics can help to identify the causes of these mega-fires in southern Africa, which will help in preparing for, and preventing future mega-fire related damages. Here we collate 10 years of records on devastating fires and relate these to satellite-derived data on fire size and Fire Radiative Power. We use this to define a ―mega-fire‖ and explore the environmental conditions which result in these mega fires in three different biomes in South Africa.

     

    1 Natural Resources and the Environment, CSIR, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa. sarchibald@csir.co.za Meraka Institute CSIR, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa.



  • Kathryn Jeffrey: Optimising the conservation of the forest-savanna mosaic of Lope National Park (Gabon): Evaluation of a 14-year fire plan

    Optimising the conservation of the forest-savanna mosaic of Lope National Park (Gabon): Evaluation of a 14-year fire plan

    Kathryn Jeffrey1, Florence Palla 2, Irène Mendoza3, Gretchen Walters4, White Lee5

    Fire management of protected savannas is rare in coastal Central African countries. In these areas, forest is expanding into savannas and fire is one possible intervention to maintain these open habitats. In the Lopé National Park (Gabon), a UNESCO world-heritage site, has had a fire plan in place for 14 years in order to maintain its forest-savanna mosaic as part of its biological and cultural heritage. Our study had three specific aims: 1) to analyse burn effort; 2) to analyse the temporal variability of fires and to understand the relationship between fires and seasonal rainfall. For each year when data were sufficiently collected corresponding to 403 fires, we used fire frequency (per year, month, and week), rainfall data, burn effort, and early vs. late season fires to analyse the efficacy of the fire plan. After 14 years of regular savanna firing, we were able to define six types of savannas on the basis of shrub density and burn frequency (burned and unburned). There was more burn effort in the northern than in the southern savannas and overall there were a greater number of early (August) than late season (September) fires. We found a high inter-annual variability of the fire regime and found no correlation between rainfall and number of successful fires. Rainfall during fire events (June-July) was nul for 94% of the cases, which ensures the feasibility of the fire planning during the long dry season. The southern savannas appeared to be colonised by forest at a faster rate. These results suggest that while the current fire plan allows six savannas types to coexist, savannas stability is not ensured. We make suggestions for improving the plan, which can serve as a model for other parks in Gabon which have recently or are currently developing fire management plans to balance new management objectives of maintaining some savannas while allowing others to be colonised by forest. As the climate changes in coastal Central Africa, fire behaviour and fuel availability will also change, thus increasing the necessity for controlled fire to limit burned area and decrease risk to colonising forest.

    Key words: Central Africa- management-climate-fire-plan

    1 ANPN-Gabon
    2 1UPMC, Paris VI-Laboratoire d‘Ecologie Générale (MNHN)
    3 Laboratoire d‘Ecologie Générale (MNHN)
    4 IRET-Gabon
    5 ANPN-Gabon



  • Chris de Bruno Austin: Development of Open Ended Fire Breaks for use in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Development of Open Ended Fire Breaks for use in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Chris de Bruno Austin (WOFI)1, Winston S.W Trollope (WOFI)2, Lynne A. Trollope (WOFI)3, Bob Connolly (FFA Ops)4 and Bandit Steyn (FFA Ops)5

    The necessity for developing an effective, economical and safe method of creating fire breaks along boundaries and/or over extensive distances using minimum manpower and fire fighting equipment is sorely needed. Recent developments in Australia using aerial ignition of fires have provided a possible and practical means of creating cost effective and ecologically acceptable Open Ended Fire Breaks spanning vast distances that are effective in controlling damaging wild fires and are aesthetically in keeping with natural landscapes in conservation areas like the Kruger National Park in South Africa. Such fire breaks are based on the concept that controlled burns, if applied to partially cured grass fuels during the late summer, as a continuous ignition line in the late afternoon/early evening, will burn and spread very slowly as low intensity fires and will be subsequently extinguished when dew forms later in the night. Recent trials in South Africa have successfully developed continuous lines of fire using the Aerial Incendiary Device attached to a Bell 206 helicopter which delivers a capsule that ignites after a delay of 30 to 40 seconds with pin point accuracy using a GPS which allows for safe burning. Best Operating Procedures (BOP‘s) detailing parameters such as grass fuel loads, percentage grass curing, air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed required to ensure safe application of this technique have been developed and tested. The prescriptive weather conditions for late afternoon/early evening will ensure the subsequent formation of dew during the night resulting in the fire dying out. These BOP‘s will pave the way for safely developing extended Open Ended Fire Breaks in the Kruger National Park.

    1 Working on Fire International, Perth, Australia – chris@wofire.co.za / chris@wof-int.com
    2 Associates Working on Fire International, Fort Beaufort, South Africa – winfire@procomp.co.za
    3 Associates Working on Fire International, Fort Beaufort, South Africa – winfire@procomp.co.za
    4 Forest Fire Association Operations, Nelspruit, South Africa
    5 Forest Fire Association Operations, Nelspruit, South Africa



  • Charles Ng: Forest fire in Tanzania: Setting the way forward

    Forest fire in Tanzania: Setting the way forward

    Charles Ng’atigwa1

    For many years forest fires have been one other source of forest destruction. This problem has been going on for now many years without special attention since the last campaign of 1970s.

    Communities are knowledgeable about the hazards and causes of forest fires. Therefore, their involvement is necessary for fire hazard reduction. It is anticipated that though Community based Fire management local communities will share responsibilities in fire management and raising awareness. However, capacity building at local level, in preventive measures and monitoring are the key aspects to strengthen fire risk reduction measures. In addition, community level fire control groups should be formed and trained on fire prevention. However, the lack of training, resources, appropriate skills, and specific organizations dealing specifically with forest fires makes this initiative ineffective

    In 2008, a survey was made to have an in depth causes of forest fires. Although the sample size was not representative, however, the survey revealed that, forest fires can be stopped. with a fire prevention strategy and programme, strong coordinated effort and inter-disciplinary approach as well as rigorous extension and publicity services.

    1 Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Forest and Beekeeping Division, P.O. Box 426, Dar es Salaam. cngatigwa@mnrt.go.tz



Parallel Session 6B

  • Malcolm N Procter: Reducing the incidents of Wildfires through hazard and risk mapping

    Reducing the incidents of Wildfires through hazard and risk mapping

    Malcolm N Procter1

    The history of Veld fires (Wildfires) can provide a valuable dimension for risk assessment. Veld fire management mitigation interventions, based on landscape risk analysis lead to a more efficient and effective application of available resources. Over time mitigation measures / achievements will become measurable, (CBA) in addition to this the need for awareness interventions can be highlighted & successes monitored. Identifying and quantifying risk is the first and most important step in the risk management process. Unidentified risk often goes untreated and can translate into retained losses that have the potential to cripple a community. A more complete understanding of the full economic, financial, and social impacts of disasters in a region, also help to demonstrate the importance of including risk reduction measures in development plans. Implementation of successful risk management will reduce the probability of damaging or undesirable incidents, and minimize damage if they do occur. Statistics help us understand data that has been collected, and can be utilized descriptively or inferentially. Descriptive statistics summarize in words the nature of the data obtained, inferential statistics summarize the way the different data has changed. This paper sets out a simplistic rapid methodology that used in the Free State Province to analyze and assess the Risks where the highest risk from Wildfire occurred in the Province. Information gathered through a series of work sessions was used to map and grade the areas at risk identified. Combining this information with data gathered through GIS analysis, created a more accurate understanding of Veld Fire risk and provided a method of truth-checking GIS outputs where the repetitive incidents of Veld fires posed a threat and the risks posed were the greatest. Further analysis using an excel spread sheet indicated the priority areas.

     

    1 Department of Water Affairs, South Africa



  • Joseph Oloukoi: Fire Practices and Vegetation Dynamics in the Central Region of Benin Republic

    Fire Practices and Vegetation Dynamics in the Central Region of Benin Republic

    Joseph Oloukoi1 and Christophe S. Houssou2

    This research aims at analyzing the vegetation fires using satellite fire hotspots detected by MODIS sensor, and using Landsat ETM and NigeriaSat1 imageries.

    MODIS hotspots were projected to UTM system with WGS84 as ellipsoid and datum. Spatial analyses carried out include the spatio-temporal distribution analysis of fires spots through Kriging, techniques and the correlation analysis between the Fire Radiative Power and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI).

    Analyses reveal a spatial distribution of fire spots with a slight variation. Years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008 and 2009 recorded high number of vegetation fires above the annual average evaluated at 4317 hotspots. Pearson coefficient revealed the existence of a correlation between the NDVI and fire. When the fire radiative power increases, the density and the greenness of the vegetation expressed by NDVI values, decreases. However, this negative correlation is low and more active in full dry season.
    Keywords: MODIS, Vegetation Fires, Satellite data, NDVI, Kriging

    1 Regional Centre for Training in Aerospace Surveys (RECTAS) Obafemi Awolowo University Campus, PMB 5545, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, chabijos@yahoo.fr oloukoi@rectas.org
    2 Department of Geography, University of Abomey Calavi, Benin Republic, BP 526. christpasse@yahoo.fr



  • Mike Cantelo: Protection of Pine Plantations, Firefighters and the Community through Controlled Burning

    Protection of Pine Plantations, Firefighters and the Community through Controlled Burning

    Mike Cantelo1 and Ben Bothma2

    Uncontrolled fire is the single biggest risk to the pine plantations around the globe. It is one risk factor that can not be predicted, or fully prepared for. At some stage in a plantations life it will be subjected to fire, and possible complete destruction. This is happening regularly as the increase in rural subdivisions and urban expansion has resulted in a greater number of people and facilities being located closer to plantations. More people and property are now exposed to the risk of wildfire.

    Pine plantations accumulate large quantities of fuel as they increase in value. Needle fall and thinning operations can develop fuel loads in excess of 100 tonnes per hectare. Any uncontrolled fire in these plantations even in mild weather conditions will result in mass death to the growing stock and put the community and firefighters at risk of injury.
    Reducing the fuel loads within pine plantations will reduce the spread and intensity of fires, it will give fire fighting crews a better chance of extinguishing the fire and help to protect the fire sensitive pine species.

    Prescribed burning under strict conditions is seen to be the most cost effective and efficient way of systematically reducing pine fuels. Plantations are evaluated (risk areas) and buffer zones (up to a one km wide) receive prescribed burning under the canopy to reduce the fuel loads to below 8 tonnes per hectare. Whilst burning is done under optimal weather conditions, it can be resource intensive, available only in limited time frames, and can temporarily have adverse effects on local communities (reduced air quality).

    Komatiland Forests has prescribed burnt under pine canopy approximately 30 000ha over the last three years. Most of the burning was done by manual ignition. One team (five people) can burn up to 80 ha per day. As the number of ideal burning days per annum is limited, aerial ignition was introduced to South Africa. This method of ignition increases the area burnt dramatically, up to 1000 ha per day and gives more flexibility to introducing larger buffer areas. By burning larger areas the unit cost is also very favorable.

    Prescribed burning is seen as the best solution to bring fuel loads down to acceptable levels and to keep them down. The two methods of ignition complement each other and by combining them the fire practitioner can guarantee to complete his burning schedule successfully. The additional spinoffs, like increase in mushroom growth and reduced use of herbicides, are positive and add value to the property.

    The forest industry has allowed its valuable plantations to become a high risk commodity. If this continues, plantations will accumulate excessive fuel loads, adding to the likelihood of more intense bushfires and massive losses; they will be putting themselves, firefighters and communities at a greater risk

    1 International Fire Operations Manager Working on Fire
    2 Fire Risk Manager Komatiland Forests



Parallel Session 7A

  • Michele Steinberg: From an idea to a movement: Firewise in the USA

    From an idea to a movement: Firewise in the USA

    Michele Steinberg1

    The 1998 International Crown Fire Modeling Experiment resulted in new research on how homes ignite during wildfire. A small group of determined individuals crafted a new approach to deal with the increasing loss of homes during wildfires. Known as ―Firewise,‖ the idea that residents of fire-prone areas were the primary actors in the drama of wildfire disaster was spread widely through a series of workshops from 1999 to 2004.

    The workshops initiated the ―Firewise movement.‖ A 2001 pilot in twelve neighbourhoods gave it shape. Residents were asked to join together and act to reduce their wildfire risk by conducting and documenting annual mitigation activities. This pilot became the voluntary Firewise Communities/USA recognition program. Today, over 640 sites in 40 U.S. states employ a flexible template to create safer communities using local solutions to their specific challenges. Neighbourhoods have invested more than US$54 million in their own safety since 2003, and nearly 90% renew their recognition status yearly. As participation grows, media outlets and legislatures have taken up the cause of safer communities.

    The presentation will cover the structure and success of the recognition program and will offer tangible evidence of the larger social movement toward community safety from wildfire.

     

    1 Firewise Communities Program Manager, National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169, USA; msteinberg@nfpa.org



  • Zane Erasmus: Is there a future for the FireWise Communities concept in South Africa?

    Is there a future for the FireWise Communities concept in South Africa?

    Zane Erasmus1 and Leanne McKrill2

    The FireWise Communities Programme organised by the National Fire Protection Association has played a major role in the management of wildland fire in the United States of America. The focus of the Programme has been the training of homeowners, planners, developers, fire-fighters and community leaders, as well as individuals who are directly involved in wildland fire events.

    Training efforts in this programme have been effectively promoted by the advent of the internet and other modern electronic means of communication.

    In South Africa, many rural low income communities are exposed to wild veld fires but do not have even the most basic resources to manage them. Can a National FireWise Communities Programme be run in South Africa to take on this challenge and what how should this Programme be designed?

    This paper examines the current situation and makes recommendation for the rollout of an effective FireWise Campaign in a South African context.

     

    1 CapeNature, P O Box 1265, George, 6530 wze@capenature.co.za
    2 Working on Fire, Winter House, Kirstenbosch National Botanical Gardens (SANBI), Rhodes Drive, Newlands 7700, South Africa



  • Alan Westhaver: Community Wildfire Protection Strategy: Municipality of Jasper, Jasper National Park, Alberta Canada.

    Community Wildfire Protection Strategy: Municipality of Jasper, Jasper National Park, Alberta Canada.

    Alan Westhaver1

    The town of Jasper, Alberta, within Canada‘s Jasper National Park, is situated among steep, densely forested mountain valleys. The town‘s vulnerability to wildfire raised significant concern for catastrophic wildfire losses, and also hindered fire management efforts (i.e. prescribed burning) for ecological restoration purposes. Wildland fire managers from Parks Canada worked together with Municipality of Jasper fire officials, town residents and forest industry contractors to develop and implement a multi-scale program for reducing wildfire risks in the wildland/urban interface. Researching and operationalizing methods of managing forest fuels in ways that respect key social and environmental values and result in optimal habitat for a wide variety of wildlife species were central to success of the project. Innovative communication methods motivated residents and businesses to become actively engaged in implementing FireSmart® guidelines for risk reduction, thus sharing responsibility for community wildfire protection. The town of Jasper is now considered a model FireSmart community.

     

    1 Vegetation/Fire Consultant Box 2194, Jasper, Alberta, Canada. T0E 1E0. alwest@telus.net Retired (2011) Vegetation/Fire Specialist, Parks Canada, Jasper National Park, Jasper, Alberta, Canada.



  • Thomas MacKenzie: FireWise communities: Case study in South Africa

    FireWise communities: Case study in South Africa

    Thomas MacKenzie1

    (This is an audio-visual presentation. No abstract available)

     

    1 Working on Fire South Africa



  • Robert Mavsar: Development of a methodology for the analysis of socio-economic impact of forest fires in Europe

    Development of a methodology for the analysis of socio-economic impact of forest fires in Europe

    Robert Mavsar1, Davide Pettenella2, Jesus San-Miguel3, Andrea Camia4

    Forest fires have been identified as one of the most important threats to forests in Europe, and especially in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) was established to provide harmonized information on forest fires in the European Union and the neighbouring countries to the relevant services in these countries, the European Commission and the European Parliament. A key aspect of this information is the economic and social impacts of forest fires, as this information would be of crucial importance to support political or managerial decisions on the development and implementation of adequate fire management measures. Hence, a new methodology for the assessment of economic impacts of forest fires in EFFIS has recently been developed. The main challenge in developing the methodology was taking into account a wide range of (market and non-market) forest goods and services that can be damaged by forest fires, and at the same time using a common approach and the existing databases. This article presents the proposed methodology and discusses its main advantages and shortcomings.

    1 European Forest Institute, Mediterranean Regional Office (EFIMED), Barcelona, Spain Corresponding author: Tel: +34 671 480 990; E-mail: robert.mavsar@efi.int
    2 University of Padova, Dipartimento Territorio e Sistemi Agroforestali, Padova, Italy
    3 Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Land Management and Natural Hazards Unit, Ispra, Italy
    4 Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Land Management and Natural Hazards Unit, Ispra, Italy



Parallel Session 7B

  • Aristides A. Kashula: Community fire awareness, prevention and survival: Jane Goodall Insitute Experience in Western Tanzania

    Community fire awareness, prevention and survival: Jane Goodall Insitute Experience in Western Tanzania

    Aristides A. Kashula1 and Grace J. Gobbo2

    Initiatives to involve local community in forest fire management presents an alternative approach of effectively reducing damage and fire incidences. This has proved effective in areas where advanced technologies and scientific means to detect and suppress wildfires do not exist, or not applicable due to the local environment.

    The Jane Goodall Institute through her programs of Greater Gombe and Masito Ugala Ecosystems has enriched with relevant experiences. Conservation Action Planning processes in both ecosystems identified wildfires as one of the key threats for conservation efforts in both ecosystems. As an attempt to abate the threat, forest fire management has been integrated into the Program‘s activities and implemented on holistic approach basis.

    In the past 10 years we have witnessed first hand impact of holistic and grassroots approach to community based forest fire management.

    This presentation provide a review of experiences and findings from the Jane Goodall Institute on fire management. It focuses on the involvement of local communities as an appropriate approach to manage wildfires and meet the broader mission of JGI‘s conservation efforts.

    Key words: Community, Fire Management , and Conservation

    1 Forest Officer, The Jane Goodall Institute, Kigoma, Tanzania. akashula@janegoodall.or.tz
    2 Botanist, The Jane Goodall Institute, Kigoma, Tanzania. ggobbo@janegoodall.or.tz



  • Kelly Johnston: Collaboration across international borders: A partnership between FireSmart (Canada) and Firewise (USA)

    Collaboration across international borders: A partnership between FireSmart (Canada) and Firewise (USA)

    Kelly Johnston 1 and Molly Mowery 2

    The neighbouring countries of Canada and the United States of America are faced with similar wildland fire management issues. As a result, the countries have a long history of ongoing mutual aid assistance for wildfire response through established agreements. Using a similar approach, the Canadian FireSmart and United States Firewise programs have recently begun a cross- border collaborative partnership to better utilize wildland/urban interface wildfire prevention resources and knowledge.

    Historically, the Firewise and the FireSmart programs developed independently, but parallel to each other with occasional resource sharing. The goal of both programs is to reduce the threat of wildfire to communities through prevention and community involvement. This new international collaboration will promote efficient resource and knowledge sharing, benefiting both countries and the communities they serve.

     

    1 Director- Partners in Protection 955 Concordia Way, Kamloops BC. CANADA V2C 6V3 kjohnston@kamloops.ca
    2 Firewise Associate Project Manager NFPA 1Batterymarch Park Quincy, MA USA 02169-7471 mmowery@nfpa.org



  • Gretchen Walters: Integrating social science into fire-regime research: Customary fire regimes and vegetation structure in Gabon

    Integrating social science into fire-regime research: Customary fire regimes and vegetation structure in Gabon’s Bateke Plateaux savannas

    Gretchen Walters12

    Most fires in Central Africa are anthropogenic. However, anthropogenic fire‘s impact on vegetation is poorly understood by fire ecologists, conservation organisations and policy makers. Studies that do exist from Africa largely address the managed application of fire, or the ―fire triad‖ of early dry season-late dry season-suppression, leaving unstudied the very anthropogenic fire regimes that occur in the majority of African savannas. I take the case of the Bateke Plateaux area where burning today occurs both annually and semi-annually and measure the impacts of these regimes on savanna structure. While annual fires are hot and burn completely, semi annual fires are cooler and patchy, favouring re-sprout survival. This work extends the fire triad model to include a semi-annual regime which favours tree survival. The integration of local fire regimes into future fire studies will help increase our understanding of climate-vegetation feedbacks as well as help orient regional policy and conservation action. An integrated approach to studying anthropogenic fire‘s effect on the landscape is proposed.

     

    1 University College London, Department of Anthropology, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT, London, England
    2 Institut de Pharmacopée et Médécines Traditionelles, Herbier National du Gabon, BP 1135, Libreville, Gabon



Parallel Session 8A

  • Mark A. Finney: Use of Fire Growth Modeling for Risk Analysis

    Use of Fire Growth Modeling for Risk Analysis

    Mark A. Finney1

    Techniques used for fire growth modeling have greatly improved since the first computer applications of early 1970s. Interest in using fire growth models for a variety of practical purposes has grown along with these advances. Now, with the increasing accessibility of computing and needed spatial input data, wildland fire management agencies in the U.S. have become aware of the potential for using fire growth for strategic assessments and quantitative wildfire risk analysis. Because risk assessment requires intersection of probabilities with impacts, they entail running fire growth models many times to generate spatial probability fields of fire behavior. This talk will be an overview of the components of ongoing fire risk assessment research that has been applied to active wildland fires for decision support and for general fire risk at multiple spatial scales (project to continental). Comparisons of simulation results with observations will also be discussed.

     

    1 USDA Forest Service, Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory, 5775 Highway 10 West, Missoula MT 59808 USA, Ph. 406-329-4832, Email: mfinney@fs.fed.us



  • Jim Gould: How good are fire behaviour models? Validation of eucalypt forest fire spread model

    How good are fire behaviour models? Validation of eucalypt forest fire spread model

    Jim Gould1, Lachie McCaw2, Miguel Cruz3, Wendy Anderson4

    The validation of fire behaviour models presents many conceptual and practical difficulties. Validation in essence involves ensuring that a model is adequate for its intended use. Success of validation will be primary limited by the nature, amount and quality of the available data. We assembled fire spread observations from independent experimental fires and from well documented wildfires in open eucalypt forests in southern Australia. We assessed the information available for each fire spread observation and rated the reliability of weather, fuel and fire spread observation. This paper presents the validation of a new fire behaviour model for dry eucalypt forest (Project Vesta) and the appropriate statistics necessary to the interpretation and validation of the predictions by the model.

     

    1 CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences- Bushfire Dynamics and Applications, GPO Box 284 Canberra, ACT 2601 Australia. Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre, East Melbourne, VIC 3002 Australia
    2 Department of Environment and Conservation, Manjumip, WA 6258 Australia
    3 CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences- Bushfire Dynamics and Applications, GPO Box 284 Canberra, ACT 2601 Australia
    4 University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra ACT 2600 Australia



  • Tom Zimmerman: Fire Science Application and Integration in Support of Decision Making

    Fire Science Application and Integration in Support of Decision Making

    Tom Zimmerman1

    Wildland fire management in the United States has historically been a challenging and complex program governed by a multitude of factors including situational status, objectives, operational capability, and scientific and technological advances. Risk-informed decision making has the potential to improve natural and community resource protection, reduce firefighter exposure, and potentially, decrease suppression costs. Integrating emerging science in support of risk-informed decision making is an ongoing effort and primary focus of the Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS). This recently developed application incorporates access to and use of numerous weather analyses, fire behavior prediction tools, economic assessment tools, and landscape data acquisition and analysis processes to improve data acquisition, analysis, and information application in decision making processes. This paper describes how science application and integration in WFDSS can increase flexibility and agility, modernize and improve risk assessment and decision making processes, and improve fire management program effectiveness.

     

    1 Program Manager, Wildland Fire Management RD&A, Rocky Mountain Research Station, National Interagency Fire Center, 3833 South Development Avenue, Boise, Idaho USA 83705, 208-387-5871, tomzimmerman@fs.fed.us



  • Morris Johnson: Post-disturbance logging effects on fuelbed characteristics and fire behavior following a major windstorm event

    Post-disturbance logging effects on fuelbed characteristics and fire behavior following a major windstorm event

    Morris Johnson1, J. Halofsky2, D.L. Peterson3

    Post-disturbance logging (salvage logging), or the removal of merchantable timber following natural disturbances, is a controversial management practice performed on federal lands in North America. Despite the frequency of this practice, few studies have quantified the effects following disturbances such as windstorms. Instead most focus exclusively on the effects following wildfire. We used the evaluate Fuel Characteristics Classification System and the Forest Vegetation Simulator to quantify the effects of post-disturbance logging and pile and burn surface fuel treatment on fuelbed characteristics and fire behavior after a windstorm event. We performed a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare mean levels of fuelbed depth, fuel loading (1 hr, 10 hr, 100 hr, 1000 hr, and larger fuel categories), and simulated fire behavior variables (rate of spread, flame length, reaction intensity (surface), crown fire potential, and available fuel potential) after a windstorm (before post-disturbance logging), after post-disturbance logging (but before pile and burn surface fuel treatment) and after pile and burn surface fuel treatment. Post-disturbance logging, pile and burn surface fuel treatment and the treatment combination (post-disturbance logging plus pile and burn) significantly reduced the major components which control wildfire behavior and severity, including fuelbed depth, 1, 10, 100 hr fuel loadings. In our study, treatments did not significantly change flame length, reaction intensity, crown fire potential, and available fuel potential. We observed a significant reduction in rate of spread from the pile and burn surface fuel treatment and treatment combination.

     

    1 Pacific Wildland Fire Science Laboratory, USDA Pacific Northwest Research Station, 400 N. 34th Street, Suite 201, Seattle, WA 98103, Telephone (206) 732-7825, Fax (206) 732-7801, Email mcjohnson@fs.fed.us
    2 University of Washington, College of the Environment, School of Forest Resources, Box 352100, Seattle WA 98195-2100, USA. Email: jhalo@uw.edu
    3 USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, 400 N 34th Street, Suite 201, Seattle, WA 98103, USA. Email: peterson@fs.fed.us



  • Joaquin Ramirez: Wildfire Analyst: Practical approach to operational wildfire simulation

    Wildfire Analyst: Practical approach to operational wildfire simulation

    Joaquín Ramírez1, Santiago Monedero2 and David Buckley3

    The use of simulation tools is growing with the evolution of the well-known Farsite and Flammap Firelab‘s tools. However, the use of these kinds of tools in operational scenarios has been minimal due to high technical requirements.

    An approach to give real time evaluations of fire behavior focused on operational user needs is presented in the form of the tool Wildfire Analyst (WFA); an ArcGIS™ based extension developed by the Spanish firm Tecnosylva. Main enhancements include automatic rate of spread adjustments based on observations and the calculation of evacuation time zones or ―fireshed‖ and reverse time calculations.
    The tool was developed during the EC VI R&D Framework Program PREVIEW. It is the operational simulator used by the Spanish Military Emergency Unit and other several regions since 2010 campaign. In October 2010 WFA won the prize for the best technological innovation in the 3rd Spanish National Symposium on wildfires.

     

    1 Tecnosylva, jramirez@tecnosylva.com
    2 Tecnosylva, smonedero@tecnosylva.com
    3 DTS Wildfire, dbuckley@dtsgis.com



Parallel Session 8B

  • Andy Ackland: Cutting-edge tools and methods for evaluating the effectiveness of fire management strategies

    Cutting-edge tools and methods for evaluating the effectiveness of fire management strategies

    Andy Ackland 1

    Victoria is one of the world‘s most bushfire prone areas. In the past decade, fire activity has increased at an alarming rate with more than three million hectares burnt and catastrophic losses to life and property. With climate change, the frequency and intensity of bushfires is expected to increase further.

    Fire managers face the dilemma of protecting human life, property and other values from severe bushfires whilst maintaining an appropriate amount of fire in the landscape to ensure ecosystems stay healthy and resilient. Many Victorian plants and animals are naturally resilient to frequent fire and some even depend on fire. Little guidance exists on how to achieve this and how to know it is being achieved. At the same time, fire managers are under increasing pressure to objectively demonstrate the effectiveness of the fire management strategies they choose.

    Bushfire risk analysts in the Land and Fire Management Division at Victoria‘s Department of Sustainability and Environment are working on a ground-breaking project, called the ‗Future Fire Management Project‘, which incorporates cutting-edge bushfire modelling technology, Phoenix (developed at the University of Melbourne and Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre), to simulate bushfires and model their potential impacts on human assets, values and ecosystems.

    The project aims to develop tools and methods to enable fire managers to map bushfire risk and define and evaluate fire management strategies that will deliver desirable future outcomes for protecting human life and property from severe bushfires, whilst also sustaining biodiversity and resilient ecosystems and providing ecosystem services, such as timber and water.

    A number of promising tools and methods have already emerged from a pilot study in the Otway region of Victoria. By simulating severe bushfires all over the landscape it is possible to map the spatial patterns of bushfire risk in detail, highlighting areas where the most threatening bushfires might start, spread and cause significant damage. Such mapping enables resource-limited fire managers to focus their efforts on areas where they know they will be having greatest effect. They can then use the same modelling to measure the effectiveness of different management strategies before they are implemented and thus before real impacts occur. The model can quantify the moderation of fire behaviour and subsequent potential impacts caused by a particular management option. The Future Fire Management project is critical in leading the move to a more transparent, science- and risk-based approach to fire management in Victoria.

     

    1 Land and Fire Management Division, Department of Sustainability and Environment, Level 3/8 Nicholson Street, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 3002



  • Karen Steenkamp: Which fire danger model is best? Quantitative evaluation of four models for South Africa, using satellite-based active fire and burned area data.

    Which fire danger model is best? Quantitative evaluation of four models for South Africa, using satellite-based active fire and burned area data.

    Karen Steenkamp1, Frans Van Den Bergh2, Philip Frost3, Konrad Wessels4, Graeme McFerren5, Chee Wai Lai6, Derick Swanepoel7, Winston Trollope8

    The study spatially compared four fire danger models; two variations of the South African Lowveld model, the Canadian Fire Weather Index, and McArthur Forest Fire Danger Index, across South Africa, for June 2007 to October 2010. Model inputs were derived from the Unified numerical weather forecast model of SAWS (11 km resolution). Active fire occurrence and burned area information from the MODIS satellite-based sensor was used as a proxy for probability of ignition and fire spread under the given fire weather conditions. Models were assessed by testing the relationship between the Fire Danger estimates and the number of active fires and burned area recorded by satellite. Models were also compared to one another for inter-calibration purposes. Preliminary results show a strong agreement between the Lowveld model and Canadian Fire Weather Index in the savannas. A geo-spatial database was developed containing all above-mentioned data, which serves as a research platform for tackling otherwise daunting, regional, fire-related research questions.

     

    1 Earth Observation Science and Information Technology, CSIR-Meraka Institute, Pretoria, South Africa, ksteenkamp@csir.co.za
    2 Earth Observation Science and Information Technology, CSIR-Meraka Institute, South Africa
    3 Earth Observation Science and Information Technology, CSIR-Meraka Institute, South Africa
    4 Earth Observation Science and Information Technology, CSIR-Meraka Institute, South Africa
    5 Earth Observation Science and Information Technology, CSIR-Meraka Institute, South Africa
    6 Earth Observation Science and Information Technology, CSIR-Meraka Institute, South Africa
    7 Earth Observation Science and Information Technology, CSIR-Meraka Institute, South Africa
    8 Working on Fire International



  • Eulalia Planas: Fire behavior variability in mallee-heath shrubland fires

    Fire behavior variability in mallee-heath shrubland fires

    Eulàlia Planas1, Elsa Pastor2, Miguel G. Cruz3 and Isaac C. Grenfell4

    Fire behavior in mallee-heath fuel types is characterized as being discontinuous and highly variable. Characterization of the variability in fire spread and intensity is necessary to implement safer and more realistic fire management practices and to better predict the effect of fire on ecosystem components.

    We analyzed fire behavior variability in experimental fires in mallee-heath vegetation burned under very high fire weather conditions. The experimental fires with sizes varying between 6 and 40 ha were undertaken within an experimental burning program conducted in South Australia between 2006 and 2008. Detailed airborne infrared imagery was collected from a hovering helicopter with an infrared camera. Concurrently, thermocouples placed within a grid pattern allowed for the estimation of flame temperatures, time of fire arrival and residence time throughout the plot. Wind measurements were conducted at two different locations in the vicinity of the burn.
    In this paper we present high resolution maps of the fire perimeter evolution (Figure 1). We compute the rate of spread of the head of the fires and we make a comprehensive statistical analysis at fine spatial and temporal scale of the rate of spread variability.

    Keywords: Eucalyptus shrublands, rate of fire spread, IR monitoring.
     

    1 Centre d‘Estudis del Risc Tecnològic (CERTEC), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, E08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.eulalia.planas@upc.edu
    2 Centre d‘Estudis del Risc Tecnològic (CERTEC), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, E08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. elsa.pastor@upc.edu
    3 CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences and CSIRO Climate Adaptation Flagship - BushfireDynamics and Applications, Canberra ACT Australia. miguel.cruz@csiro.au
    4 USDA Forest Service, Fire Sciences Lab 5775 Highway 10 West, Missoula, MT 59802 icgrenfell@fs.fed.us



  • Timothy J. Brown: Developing Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies from Co-Production of Knowledge: An approach for Fire Scientists and Managers

    Developing Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies from Co-Production of Knowledge: An approach for Fire Scientists and Managers

    Timothy J. Brown1 and Crystal A. Kolden2

    A key fire management challenge is developing mitigation and adaptation strategies given climate change and variability, and disturbances such as invasive species and insects. Even when research is available to aid in strategy development, there are often obstacles in effectively transferring this knowledge into practice (e.g., acceptance of the knowledge, adopting the knowledge into practice, understanding the knowledge for effective utilization). Co-production of knowledge integrates ground-based experience with a scientific foundation through collaboration between scientists and stakeholders. Co-production is an attribute of a more effective adaptive framework of knowledge generation as a means of scientific development that better allows for access and usability of the produced information. This presentation will provide examples of co-production, and outlines a framework for fire managers globally to effectively innovate and utilize co-produced results in practice.

     

    1 Climate, Ecosystem and Fire Applications, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV, USA
    2 Climate, Ecosystem and Fire Applications, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV, USA, Department of Geography, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, USA



  • Fabienne Reisen: Smoke impacts on the fire ground: What are the exposure risks and how can potential health impacts be minimised?

    Smoke impacts on the fire ground: What are the exposure risks and how can potential health impacts be minimised?

    Fabienne Reisen1 and C.P. (Mick) Meyer2

    Firefighters are exposed to many health-damaging air pollutants present in bushfire smoke and poorly managed exposure can result in serious health issues. A better understanding of exposure levels and the major factors influencing exposures is crucial for the development of mitigation strategies to minimise exposure risks and adverse health impacts.

    The exposure of firefighters to air toxics at prescribed burns and wildfires and the consequent risk for health were evaluated in relation to established occupational exposure standards. The pollutants identified to be of primary concern were CO, respirable particles and formaldehyde. On occasions these pollutants were measured at high concentrations and therefore have the potential to impact firefighter‘s health. Exposure levels varied widely with work task and burn conditions thus providing opportunities for mitigation strategies. It was concluded that risks could be minimised by revised firefighter work routines and fire ignition patterns that limit the duration of firefighter exposure to high smoke conditions.

     

    1 CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Melbourne VIC, Australia; Bushfire CRC, Melbourne VIC, Australia
    2 CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Melbourne VIC, Australia; Bushfire CRC, Melbourne VIC, Australia



Parallel Session 9

  • Lindsay Voss: Exploring the use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Wildfire Management, Suppression and Prevention

    Exploring the use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Wildfire Management, Suppression and Prevention

    Lindsay Voss1, Kyle Snyder2

    The purpose of this paper is to present the potential benefits of incorporating unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into wildland fire response, management, suppression, containment and prevention. Since 2009, AUVSI has conducted a series of Table Top Exercises and demonstrations in conjunction with the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) and the U.S. Forest Service to explore how UAS could assist firefighters and incident managers during wildfire events. The paper describes findings from experts in the firefighting and UAS communities who collectively investigated the employment of UAS in real world fire scenarios with the end goal of identifying the strengths and shortcomings of the demonstrated technologies. Technical, regulatory, political and organizational obstacles are discussed as well as the potential opportunities for unmanned aircraft to improve wildland fire management and increase firefighter safety.

     

    1 Senior Research Analyst, Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI)
    2 UAS Program Director, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN 37132, ksnyder@mtsu.edu



  • Brian Simpson: Community Protection and Implementation of a Fuel Management Strategy in British Columbia, Canada

    Community Protection and Implementation of a Fuel Management Strategy in British Columbia, Canada

    Brian Simpson1

    The 2003 fire season was one of the worst on record in British Columbia. Wildfire destroyed over 334 homes and many businesses, and forced the evacuation of over 45,000 people. Since that time British Columbia has experienced an ever increasing trend of more severe fire seasons with unprecedented levels of impact to communities including regular evacuation events and other associated impacts. Beginning in 2004 a comprehensive fuel management strategy was launched to address the significant concern of protecting assets and structures specifically in the urban-interface.

    Now five years into the implementation of the new fuel management strategy there are many accomplishments, successes and challenges to report out on. Included in these successes are some actual fire events that have occurred where fire officials believe the fuel treatments are largely responsible for protection the community, reducing direct fire response costs and greatly enhancing public and responder safety.

    This presentation will impart the learning‘s British Columbia has experienced as a result of implementing this fuel management strategy.

     

    1British Columbia, Canada, Ministry of Natural Resource Operations, Wildfire Management Branch, PO Box 9502 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria BC, V8W 9C1, Canada. E-mail: brian.simpson@g.v.bc.ca



  • Maria Isabel Cruz Lopez: Forest Fire Early Warning System for Mexico

    Forest Fire Early Warning System for Mexico

    Maria Isabel Cruz Lopez1

    The National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) contributes to cambat of Forest Fire in Mexico and Central America, by means of the program for hot spot detection using remote sensing thecniques, since 1999. Currently the program using MODIS satellite images to detecte hotspot which might be considered as possible source of forest fire, between six and eight times a day. Project "Forest fires early-warning system" to help prevent, combat and analysis of fire was established in the framework of the programme. The system consists of three components associated with the stages of risk management: before (early warning), during (hot spot monitoring) and after (burnt areas identification). Therefore presentation will intend to show progress in the development of components using TRMM, MODIS, and AWIFS satellite images as a primary input.

     

    1 Remote Sensing Sub-director, National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO). Liga Periferico – Insurgentes Sur 4903, Col. Parques del Pedregal. Del. Tlalpan. C.P. 14010, Mexico D.F. icruz@conabio.gob.mx



  • Joachim F. Dreibach: Automated Wildland Fire Detection integrated in Fire Management Systems and Procedures: Best practices and new technologies in fire detection and suppression

    Automated Wildland Fire Detection integrated in Fire Management Systems and Procedures: Best practices and new technologies in fire detection and suppression

    Joachim F. Dreibach1

    Based on the pilot project at the Department ―Fire Department Of Bouches-du-Rhône― it is visible how to integarte such equipment effective and reliable into a powerful Disaster Management system. In this region, each year an area of approximately 30‘000 ha is burned.

    In summer, the wildfire threat reaches extreme levels when dry and strong winds, blow at 100km/h over the mountain tops and plains and function like a high power fan. The speed of spread of a fire front rolls with up to 2km/hr or more over hilly zones.
    In those extreme conditions, a small fire turns out to become a major fire in a period of few minutes and the battle against can only be won, if the professional and well trained teams stop the fire during the first few minutes before its dramatic dynamics are developed.
    In addition, the geological area situation, from zero see level up to 1200m mountain regions, requires max employment of the resources and fast, precise decisions by the emergency management stuff.

    The French Center of Research and Experience has been observing over the past 10 years a reduction of the average annual burned area by 50% while at the same time fire situation become more and more scare.
    In the South of France for instance we notice a paradox: the average temperature is on the rise, the drying out of forests grows more acute, while the population is expanding in number and inhabited area, thus the fire risk is largely increasing and still the French Center of Research and Experience observes a slight reduction in the annual average surface burned.
    This tendency lets assume that all the efforts and advances undertaken over the past, like the high integration of the surveillance system Forest Ranger, start to show their efficiency.

     

    1 Fire watch international AG CH 5000Aarau, Bahnhofstrasse 10 j.dreibach@international.fire.-watch.ch



  • P. Frost: The Advanced Fire Information System in operation

    The Advanced Fire Information System in operation

    P. Frost1, G. McFerren2, H. F. Vosloo3

    The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) lead by die Meraka Institute and supported by the Satellite Application Centre (SAC) developed the Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) with the aim to provide information into the hands of disaster managers, fire fighters, farmers and forest managers who needed warnings of where a fire is, and where it's heading. The system combines satellite data with mobile phone technology to provide crucial early warnings. With the launch of the system in 2004, Eskom quickly became the biggest user of the system and today more than 300 line managers and support staff all around the country receive cell phone and email fire alert messages whenever a fire is within 2 km of any of the 28000km of Eskom transmission lines.

    1 Meraka Institute CSIR, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa pfrost@csir.co.za
    2 Meraka Institute CSIR, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa
    3 Eskom TSI, Rivonia, South Africa Hein.Vosloo@eskom.co.za



Parallel Session 10

  • Gordon Sachs: Application of the National Incident Management System in an All-Hazard Environment

    Application of the National Incident Management System in an All-Hazard Environment

    Gordon Sachs 1

    The United States wildland fire community developed the National Interagency Incident Management System (NIIMS) in the 1970s after a series of devastating fires in California. Over the next three decades, NIIMS was successfully applied by wildland fire agencies on many different types of incidents. In 2003 the President of the United States mandated the National Incident Management System (NIMS) be used by all local, State, and Federal government agencies for incidents of all types, sizes, and complexities. This paper describes how NIMS is successfully applied at non-fire incidents such as hurricanes, earthquakes, disease outbreaks, terrorist attacks, and off-shore oil spills. Incidents highlighted include Hurricanes Katrina and Ike, the Space Shuttle Columbia Recovery incident, the Exotic New Castle Disease outbreak, the attacks on the World Trade Center, and the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

     

    1 U.S. Forest Service



  • Taylor, S.W.: Projecting fire management resource demand and availability to support national resource sharing

    Projecting fire management resource demand and availability to support national resource sharing

    Taylor, S.W.1, R.S. McAlpine2, K. Anderson3, and B. Low4

    Fire activity in Canada is highly variable: both within and between fire seasons in a particular region, as well as between regions over the fire season; this results in peaks in demand for fire management resources. Sharing of fire management resources between otherwise autonomous Canadian provincial/territorial and national agencies has evolved to provide ―surge capacity‖ during peaks in resource demand. We have developed a system to project fire load, fire management resource requirements, and resource availability over a 14-day planning period that can be utilized by each Canadian fire management agency. The purpose of the system is to provide a common tool to develop fire management resource plans at multiple scales: from the response centre to the provincial/territorial and national levels, to better anticipate the need for and facilitate resource sharing. The system integrates fortnightly ensemble weather forecasts, statistical models of fire risk, resource use coefficients, and expert opinion/experience. GIS technologies have allowed fire danger to be extended in space; this system demonstrates the use of numerical weather modeling to project fire danger in time.

     

    1 Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service
    2 Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Aviation, Forest Fire and Emergency Services. Corresponding author: staylor@nrcan.gc.ca 506 W. Burnsdide Rd, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8Z1M5
    3 Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service
    4 Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service



  • Fred Favard: Institutionalizing application of the Incident Command System

    Institutionalizing application of the Incident Command System

    Fred Favard & Tim Murphy1

    The Incident Command System (ICS) is a standardized, on-scene, all-hazards incident management approach. ICS has been adopted since the mid 1970‘s by several countries across the globe.and. can be used by all levels of government as well as by many nongovernmental organizations and the private sector. ICS is also applicable across disciplines. It is typically structured to facilitate activities in five major functional areas: Command, Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Finance/Administration. All of the functional areas may or may not be used based on the incident needs.
    The South African Incident Command Working Team adopted ICs in 2004. It is made up of the Fire Protection Associations, Forest Industry, National Parks, Cape Nature, Working on Fire, AfriFireNet, Structural Fire and Disaster Management. The Working Team agreed to develop ICS standards for South Africa veld and forest fire organizations. A Veld, Forest and Prescribed Fire Qualification System Guide has been developed under the sponsorship of the South African ICS Working Team.

    The South Africa ICS Working Team & Qualifications System recognizes the ability of cooperating companies / agencies at the local level to jointly define and accept each other‘s qualifications for initial attack, extended attack, and large veld and forest fire operations. The South African ICS Working Team has hosted ICS training since 2004 with exposure to Botswana, Germany, Italy, Kenya, Namibia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

    As a system, ICS is extremely useful; not only does it provide an organizational structure for incident management, but it also guides the process for planning, building, and adapting that structure. Using ICS for every incident or planned event helps hone and maintain skills needed for the large-scale incidents. ICS has proven itself worldwide to be the system to manage disaster and major events, such as this International Conference.

     

    1 Working on Fire South Africa



  • Renaud Vidal: How lessons learned by High Reliability Organizations can improve incident management

    How lessons learned by High Reliability Organizations can improve incident management

    Renaud Vidal1, Tom Harbour2 and Luc Jorda3

    The vulnerability of a growing number of communities and territories to wildland fire is reaching a critical threshold due to the conjunction of three long term trends: climate change, growing wildland-urban interface, and an increase in fuels. Improving the reliability of response organizations is crucial. Incident Management Teams can benefit from the lessons learned by High Reliability Organizations, a subset of organizations—such as aircraft carriers, the nuclear industry, and air traffic control—for which errors can be catastrophic. We present our findings and contribution to incident management based on a 3-year international collaboration among the US Forest Service, the National Advanced Fire and Resource Institute, Bouches du Rhone Fire Department, France‘s National Training School (ECASC) and the Universities of Aix-Marseille and California, Berkeley.

     

    1 Research Engineer, University Aix Marseille and Affiliated Expert at UC Berkeley Center for Catastrophic Risk Management – renaudvidal@gmail.com
    2 Director of US Forest Service Fire and Aviation Management.
    3 Director of SDIS13, France



  • Ron Steffens: Web-sharing and Resource-sharing: Lessons from Tetonfires.com

    Web-sharing and Resource-sharing: Lessons from Tetonfires.com

    Ron Steffens1

    In 2001, the Green Knoll Fire in Jackson, Wyoming (USA) burned intensely in the wildland-urban interface, demonstrating the threat of landscape-scale fire to homes, livelihoods, and a tourism-based economy. Internet users tracked the fire on tetonfires.com, an interagency website serving Teton Interagency Dispatch Center. This website‘s history parallels the resource sharing, coordination, and evolving fire regimes that define the southern Yellowstone ecosystem. This collaboration resulted from the 1988 landscape-scale fires, leading to an interagency planning and dispatching process based on the precept that fire doesn‘t recognize inter-governmental boundaries. This partnership includes shared resources -- coordinated fire planning, a shared helibase and fuels-management crew, and coordinated first-response engines and management teams -- all united in this single website.
    Such common and shared communication processes will prove essential as fire managers respond to cross-boundary fire activity, the result of climate-change transitions to regional fire regimes.

     

    1 Ron Steffens. Professor of Communications. Green Mountain College, Poultney, VT. USA. steffensr@greenmtn.edu.. Summer: Fire Monitor, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA.



Parallel Session 11

  • Jim Saveland: Leadership Development - Trial by Fire

    Leadership Development – Trial by Fire

    Jim Saveland1

    In 2005 I made a presentation on ―Wilderness: Forge of Alchemist Leaders‖ at the 8th World Wilderness Congress. In 2007 I gave an invited keynote address on ―World Leaders in Risk Management: An Action-Research Agenda‖ at the first Human Dimensions of Wildland Fire Conference. This paper will be a further exploration of the territory of leadership development as it applies to integrated fire management. An overview of the scholarly literature on leadership will be followed by strategies for practical application of leading edge concepts from the fields of sports psychology, trauma psychology, neuroscience, resilience engineering, and adaptive decision-making. There is growing recognition that fireline safety is an emergent behavior of our complex system of human performance. A model of human performance focused on resilience and adaptation will be presented. Leadership is responsible for creating a climate conducive to the growth and development of their people; the key ingredient to high performance.

     

    1 Program Manager for Human Factors & Risk Management RD&A, U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 240 W. Prospect Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80526. jsaveland@fs.fed.us



  • Bill Miller: Leadership On Purpose... A Case for Conscious Decision Making

    Leadership On Purpose… A Case for Conscious Decision Making

    Bill Miller1

    As firefighters and incident managers, we live and work in a highly complex and unforgiving environment. The lessons we have learned have not come at a small price. Yet, it seems we must constantly fight to keep these lessons alive and useful.In recent years, enormous investments in curriculums that specialize in the concepts of Leadership, Risk Management and Decision Making have made significant impacts on the capabilities of people on the ground, and in our culture as a whole.

    With all of the improvements we have seen in our abilities to operate more effectively in the incident, as well as in the human environments, we continue to struggle through some of the same difficult and frustrating lessons. Please join us in a discussion regarding the reasons behind why we continue to fight the same battles… and how we can move to the next level.

    1 NWCG Leadership Sub-Committee, Curriculum Management Unit, U.S. Forest Service



  • Alen Slijepcevic: Workforce Planning System - Can we improve succession planning?

    Workforce Planning System – Can we improve succession planning?

    Alen Slijepcevic1, Daniel Catrice1, Anthony Griffiths1, Andrew Buckley1, Mark Woodman1, Moshfegh Hamedani2, Sandy Clarke3

    Improving the level of knowledge and understanding of workforce trends such as retirement and other reasons for leaving land management organisations, especially staff with AIIMS capabilities and qualifications will lead to improved succession planning. Australia as a whole invests comparatively little in this field and this is also the case in Northern America.

    Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) is responsible for bushfire management on public land in Victoria, Australia. This is delivered through the Networked Emergency Organisation (NEO). The NEO has access to approximately 3,500 ‗fire staff‘ and is compromised six Victorian departments and agencies: DSE, Parks Victoria, Department of Primary Industry, VicForests, Melbourne Water and Department of Planning and Community Development.

    Recent inquires and reports highlight a range of issues that will impact on the capability of the NEO to meet workforce requirements for both bushfire suppression and planned burning operations. Key issues of concern include: an aging workforce, difficulties in recruiting staff into fire roles, increasing use of contract staff inhibiting progression of staff into higher roles, changes in workforce attitudes towards
    work/life balance and loss of specialised forest and land management skills.

    This paper will explain how all DSE systems are linked (Figure 1) to provide the desired level of support for workforce planning at the District, Area and State level. This is becoming more critical in times of climate change, aging population and the high proportion of command/control staff that are expected to leave the workforce over the next three to five years.

     

    1 Land and Fire Management, Department of Sustainability and Environment, Level 4 / 8 Nicholson
    Street, East Melbourne, VIC 3002 Australia. alen.slijepcevic@dse.vic.gov.au
    2 Sunesis
    3 University of Melbourne



  • David A. Christenson: Mindful Leadership Developing Thinking People

    Mindful Leadership Developing Thinking People

    David A. Christenson1

    People usually create safety in a very unsafe world because they have learned how to think and make effective judgments. Some people are able to think things through and continually improve the ways that their minds process information. Improving thinking is one of the fastest ways to improve performance. Mindful leaders know that.

    The most effective leaders help people to think. They don‘t just give them the answers to their problems by telling them what to do. Leaders think about people‘s thinking and become passionate about improving not what people are thinking, but improving the way that they think.

    Thinking is what most people are paid to do. Most people are very capable and thrive on improvement. They want to work smarter, they want to be smarter, and they are looking for help to get there. This presentation will provide four effective ways for mindful leaders to build thinking people.

     

    1 Assistant Manager of the U.S. Wildland Fire Lessons Learned Center



  • Denny Truesdale: Using the Fire Management Voluntary Guidelines to Develop Fire Management Plans

    Using the Fire Management Voluntary Guidelines to Develop Fire Management Plans

    Denny Truesdale 1

    The Fire Management Voluntary Guidelines (FAO Working Paper FM17) provide agency personnel at all levels a systematic approach and framework for developing fire management plans and other policy and program documents. The Guidelines move beyond fire suppression and provide a holistic framework to wildland fire management from establishing the initial legal and policy basis to monitoring effectiveness and restoration. The Guidelines can be used in different ways; as a survey document to assess current plans and as a template to guide plan development.

    During an FAO funded technical cooperation project to Macedonia, the author used the list of strategic actions to assess the current plan and provided policy level managers a format for a revised national fire management plan. This paper will demonstrate how the Guidelines can be used to assess and prepare a wide range of policy, program, and operational documents.

     

    1 Retired US Forest Service Wildland Fire Specialist. Email - DennyTruesdale@aol.com.



  • Renaud Vidal: Getting stronger by benefiting from both worlds: A cross comparison between France and the US

    Getting stronger by benefiting from both worlds: A cross comparison between France and the US

    Renaud Vidal1, Tom Harbour2 & Luc Jorda3

    France and the US face symmetric challenges in wildland fire management. Historically, France designed fire prevention and suppression for the wildland-urban interface. Now, fires in France are larger, more complex, and of longer duration, posing new challenges to the existing system. Conversely, the US has built a system to manage large fires in vast forests and grasslands. However, the growing wildland-urban interface in the US calls for adjustments in fire management methods including prevention, suppression, and community cooperation. A close examination of each country‘s system enabled each organization to benefit by adopting and adapting best practices from the other country. We present the process followed, our findings, and contributions based on a 3-year international collaboration among the US Forest Service, the National Advanced Fire and Resource Institute, Bouches du Rhone Fire Department, France‘s National Training School (ECASC) and the Universities of Aix-Marseille and California, Berkeley.

     

    1 Research Engineer, University Aix Marseille and Affiliated Expert at UC Berkeley Center for Catastrophic Risk Management – renaudvidal@gmail.com
    2 Director of US Forest Service Fire and Aviation Management
    3 Director of SDIS13, France



Parallel Session 12

  • Alexander Held: International Arrangements on Cooperation in Wildland Fire Management: Developments in Africa since WildFire 2007 and the Way Ahead

    International Arrangements on Cooperation in Wildland Fire Management: Developments in Africa since WildFire 2007 and the Way Ahead

    Alexander Held 1

    Developments in capacity building from individual to institutional level in one of the regions of the Global Wildland Fire Network GWFN: Africa.

    Started in 2002, AfriFireNet was formed by interested and motivated individuals and over the years grew into a network of institutions, became a registered legal person and an implementing partner for international NGOs, Governments as well as national government departments. This paper and presentation will highlight the milestones of this development, the challenges and the endurance of the network members. The successes so far will be presented with emphasize on the network supporters, i.e the RSA government through the WoF program and the Global Fire Monitoring Centre GFMC.

    The latest developments on a regional basis and including the 14 SADC (Southern African Developing Community) member states started to gather momentum on a regional fire conference in January 2010, resulting in a SADC Fire management program document.

    By end of 2010 AfriFireNet and partners have secured funding to establish the envisaged Regional Fire Coordination Centre serving the SADC region.

    A true networking approach of partners from Africa, Germany and Canada will provide funding, data, resources and expertise and start to deliver service as described and outlined in the SADC fire program document by May 2011.
    International Fire Arrangements have been on the AfriFireNet agenda since 2002, and will gain new momentum through the mandate of a regional coordinating fire authority.

    Most of the Regional Fire Networks are experiencing similar challenges to establish themselves and their members as a recognised role player in the decision making process. Despite all high level conferences and political documents, the grass root level of the networks is still far from its potential. The AfriFireNet example can serve as a role model and motivator for other fire networks out there.

     

    1 UN ISDR Regional Sub Sahara Wildand Fire Network AfriFireNet alex@wof-int.com



  • Murray Dudfield: International Cooperation in Fire Management

    International Cooperation in Fire Management

    Murray Dudfield1 and Denny Truesdale 2

    Sharing fire fighting resources, research findings and management expertise in the economic, climatic, and fire situations we are experiencing today is becoming important for both small and large countries. This will bring countries that share an international border and across the Globe to cooperate when in a position to do so. It is now common practice for countries to exchange resources and expertise. By the time a disaster occurs, unless agreement are in place, the cooperation may be too little and too late. The USA and Canada have important and effective agreements with New Zealand and Australia, countries a hemisphere away.

    In this paper the authors will present the reasons why these long distance arrangements work and how they began. How big countries can support small and small support big. From the experiences within the countries to the work in the international arena, there are many reasons why cooperation among countries big and small can be effective and how it can be strengthened. The idea that ―relationships come first and agreements follow‖ is a first step in this process.

     

    1 National Rural Fire Officer, National Rural Fire Authority, Wellington, New Zealand. Email – nrfo@fire.org.nz
    2 Retired US Forest Service Wildland Fire Specialist, Arlington VA, USA. Email - DennyTruesdale@aol.com



Parallel Session 13

  • Ernesto Alvarado: Integration and Application of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Modern Science for Contemporary Wildland Fire Management in Tribal Lands in North America

    Integration and Application of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Modern Science for Contemporary Wildland Fire Management in Tribal Lands in North America

    Ernesto Alvarado1 Larry Mason2 Adrian Leighton 3 Germaine White4 Gary Morishima 5 Jim Durglo 6 Jim Erickson7 Laurel James 8 Everett Isaac 9

    Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) is the transgenerational accumulation of information and observational experience that integrates spiritual and cultural values. TEK is based on indigenous understanding that humans and environment are interrelated and that balance is vital to sustainability. Modern western science disaggregates earth systems into constituent parts for detailed study and management. Both TEK and western science can usefully inform policy decisions affecting management of natural resources. TEK can contribute place-based knowledge of ecosystem relationships while western science can provide complementary information about ecosystem components. Combined, these different ways of thinking can improve our collective understanding and capacity to meet today's challenges for sustainable natural resource and wildland fire management.

    This presentation will present highlight the findings the results of a two-day workshop in June 2010, when people from different realms of expertise and cultural backgrounds gathered together on the Flathead Indian Reservation to explore cross-cultural integration of Native American stewardship practices, traditional knowledge and philosophies with Western science. It was shared concern about forest health and wildfire hazard that brought these people together but broader issues of cultural respect, humility, and knowledge-sharing quickly emerged. Integration and application of traditional knowledge and Western science for contemporary wildland fire management will require commitment to abandon preconceptions, correct legacies of misunderstanding, and embrace collaborative visions that extend beyond accustomed boundaries of professional training and cultural orientation.

     

    1 School of Forest Resources, University of Washington. Seattle, Washington, USA. alvarado@uw.edu
    2 School of Forest Resources, University of Washington. Seattle, Washington, USA. larrym@uw.edu
    3 Salish-Kootenai Indian College. Pablo, Montana, USA adrian_leighton@skc.edu
    4 Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes. Pablo, Montana. USA. germainew@cskt.org
    5 Quinault Indian Nation and Intertribal Timber Council. Seattle, Washington, USA. MORIKOG@aol.com
    6 Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and Intertribal Timber Council. Pablo, Montana, USA. jimd@cskt.org
    7 Intertribal Timber Council. Portland, Oregon, USA. jim.erickson@couleedam.net
    8 Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation and University of Washington. Toppenish, Washington, USA. laurelj@uw.edu
    9 Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation and University of Washington. Toppenish, Washington, USA. eisaac@yakama.com



  • Michael Carter: Hope for the future: how cooperation with local people has turned around a regional fire regime in Arnhem Land.

    Hope for the future: how cooperation with local people has turned around a regional fire regime in Arnhem Land.

    Michael Carter1

    A little over 12 years ago much of central and western Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory of Australia received no fire management, following almost a century of progressive abandonment of the region as Aboriginal people moved to neighbouring settlements to obtain easy access to employment and goods and services. The result was a fire regime characterised by unfettered transport of major conflagrations over vast tracts of country, and having a catastrophic impact on the region‘s unique flora and fauna. This paper presents the story of the remarkable turn-around that has occurred since 1998 which has lead to an active program of fire management that has fundamentally changed the fire regime to one dominated by mild and manageable early dry season fires.

    The paper documents the steps required to achieve landscape-scale fire management noting mechanisms for long term collaboration between Aboriginal Traditional Owners, government agencies, scientists and neighbouring landholders and effective approaches to working together, learning from mistakes and continually improving fire management practice.

     

    1 Regional Fire Control Officer, Arnhem Region, Bushfires NT



  • Carlos Pinto: Lessons Learned on Fire Management in Indigenous Communities of Bolivia

    Lessons Learned on Fire Management in Indigenous Communities of Bolivia

    Carlos Pinto1, Ernesto Alvarado2

    The subsistence agriculture practiced by indigenous communities on tropical lowlands in Bolivia is commonly associated to slash-and-burn agriculture. This traditional practice is being replaced by non-mechanized commercial agriculture. The presentation will describe indigenous land use practices in the department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. It will describe how communities participate on planning and organizing for Chaco burning in areas with the high incidence of wildfires. Indigenous people and NGOs are working together to preserve the traditional chaco burning. They have also engaged on efforts to educate on traditional chaco burning to peasants from other parts of the country that have recently settled on these regions. Fire research in Bolivia is generating information on the role of fire in the country‘s forests ecosystems and the relationship with the need of using fire by indigenous communities. This information is necessary to begin opening the communication channels between communities, researchers, environmentalists, and government. It is also intended to provide cohesive information for the development of a national policy on integrated fire management in Bolivia.

     

    1 Fundacion Amigos de la Naturaleza and Wildlife Conservation Society, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Email: carlospintog@gmail.com.
    2 School of Forest Resources, University of Washington. Seattle, Washington, USA. alvarado@uw.edu



  • Jarrad Holmes: The cultural economy and indigenous fire management opportunities in the Northern Territory, Australia

    The cultural economy and indigenous fire management opportunities in the Northern Territory, Australia

    Jarrad Holmes and Otto Campion1

    The Western Arnhem Land Fire Abatement (WALFA) project in the Northern Territory of Australia has successfully been implementing a landscape-scale indigenous fire and carbon abatement management program since 2006. The project operates over 28000 km2 of fire-prone savanna and has achieved significant (>35%) reductions in greenhouse gas emissions as well as social and biodiversity outcomes. The project is delivered by the Indigenous custodians of the region being employed to undertake prescribed burning using a blend of traditional ecological knowledge and western scientific methods. Funding is provided through a voluntary carbon trading contract with a multinational energy company based in Darwin.

    Following an outline of the WALFA project, this presentation will then discuss some of the emerging projects that are attempting to replicate the WALFA success across an additional 60 000 km2 of Indigenous lands in the Northern Territory, Australia. The aim is for these projects to enter and trade carbon in the near future under the Australian Government‘s developing Carbon Farming Initiative, due to commence July 2011.

     

    1 Caring for Country Unit, Northern Land Council, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. jarrad.holmes@nlc.org.au